Among the statements of the writer Maxim Gorky there are words that what they say may not always be important. But what is truly important is, as they say. One cannot but agree with this.
This article will consider what it is - a speech element. How do individuals and society as a whole participate in it, one way or another participating in the processes of verbal communication.
The speech element is considered the atmosphere, the social environment in which the formation of aspects of the verbal interaction of people of a certain cultural level takes place.
Verbal means through speech. This is how, to a greater extent, people are used to interacting with each other. A small percentage of communication is given to non-verbal means: facial expressions, gestures, intonation. But sometimes they form a special speech atmosphere.
How people communicate, express emotions, build dialogues, form sentences - the speech element combines all this into one common cultural space.
The minimum element with which communication is built between people is the word as the basic carrierinformation. The second most important place is occupied by the speech situation.
They are different, like scenes from a play: informational dialogues (questions - answers), collective conversation, interaction such as "teacher - student" and others. Based on the situation itself, words are used that correspond to it and the meaning of communication.
Oral communication can take many forms. The element of speech is formed from the totality of language means. It may depend on:
- atmosphere of communication (friendly, family, official);
- number of participants;
- social roles of those who participate in the conversation.
Depending on the above communication factors, the speech situation will be built using special vocabulary, intonation, voice timbre, the presence of pauses in the conversation, argumentation and much more.
Subjects of communication
People, heroes, characters - all these are the thinking units of the communicative process in life and books. Each has its own unique conversational image - "speech mask".
A person is quite capable of developing his own manner of speech, based on the general cultural customs of his social environment. Let's take examples of speech masks from life: a teacher, a military man, an informal teenager, a clergyman.
Everyone is characterized by the use of a personalized set of lexical means and non-verbal communication techniques that distinguishes them from other socialgroups.
Within the same state (district, county, state) all subjects of communication with their speech masks will interact in a common language segment. That is, at a higher level, all social groups form the same: pronunciation, accent, dialect, intonational and rhythmic features.
Speech element implies the mass self-consciousness of a large number of speech subjects united in social strata. This is due to the identification of people themselves in relation to the country, its culture and art.
Variety and causes
The element of speech can manifest itself at various levels. From nationwide to local - within one locality.
The uniqueness of such lexical "enclaves" is due to the peculiarities of history and multinationality. It is these reasons that often give rise to such a peculiar style of communication - the speech element.
Everyone knows and many love the famous Odessa humor. It also surprises and delights the way the inhabitants of this city communicate with each other. The speech element of Odessa can be called inimitable. It is built on specific speech features.
Vocabulary and style
The elements of speech can vary at different levels (territorial, social, cultural). But there is something in common that unites them: vocabulary. It comes in three types:
- neutral, for example, the word "belly";
- reducing - "belly";
- overestimating -"womb".
This is where the stylistics comes from - techniques of jargon, colloquial speech (vernacular) and sublime, pompous and pathetic forms. Many examples can be found in fiction.
Odes are an example of sublime style in poetry. It uses a way of presenting information using inflated lexical forms and speech intonations.
This style can be used in everyday life, but it will acquire a touch of irony or sarcasm. Example: "Oh, my beloved wife! Deign to cook me a delicious dinner with your thin fingers!".
Colloquial and slang expressions are the lot of many detective stories or books that describe the world of crime.
Most often found are neutral vocabulary, narrative notes in descriptions of nature, retellings of news and events.
For the brightness of perception, the authors create literary characters, who are endowed with speech masks. Then dialogues or crowded meetings look colorful, lively, incendiary. This technique is used by the writer most often. A good example is the works of V. Shukshin, in which you can find elements of a "violent" speech element - "multilayered" communication.