Affixation - what is it? The concept and methods of affixation

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Affixation - what is it? The concept and methods of affixation
Affixation - what is it? The concept and methods of affixation

It is generally accepted in the world that the Russian language is one of the most difficult and incomprehensible for foreigners to learn it. In English, there are many tenses that are difficult for us to understand. Each language is unique in its own way. Affixation is one of the manifestations of word formation. In the article we will analyze this linguistic concept in detail. Happy reading!

Affixation - what is it?

Before you know what this concept means, you need to study another definition. Morphology is a science that studies various parts of speech, including word formation. Affixation is what helps build a word. It includes all suffixes and prefixes that need to be attached to the root stem. Let's analyze this phenomenon using the word "white" as an example. Bel is the root, and -th- is the ending. You need to add the prefix "by" to the base. Then we have a new word with a different meaning - to whiten.

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Ways of affixes

Linguists divide affixes into several types according to their position in the word. Distinguish:

  1. Prefixes (or other name"prefixes") come before the root stem.
  2. Postfixes are after the root.
  3. And a separate category of affixes called infixes. These include the endings "ss \ s".

Suffixes and their meaning in Russian

Affixation is the construction of a new word in Russian with the help of various affixes. As we found out, linguists and linguists distinguish three types of them. In Russian, suffixes include the following:

  1. -IK-, -k-, -ok-, -ek-, -onk-, -enk-, -ear-, -yushk-, -points- have a diminutive property. For example: beautiful - beautiful; thought - thought and so on.
  2. -Nits- and -to- refer to the formation of words that refer to females. For example, an accordion player is an accordion player, a machinist is a typist.
  3. -Nick-, -chik-, -tel-, -schik- refer to males. For example, a translation is a translator, a stone is a bricklayer and others.
  4. Adjectives can be formed using these suffixes: -ov\ev-, -n-, -sk-, -ist-. For example, honey is honey, joy is joyful.
  5. You can make a verb out of a noun or an adjective using the following postfixes: -ova\eva-, -e-, -and-. For example, a quarrel is to quarrel, a fisherman is to fish, and so on.
  6. Suffixes -t-, -ti-, -ch- indicate the initial form of the verb, and -l- indicate the past tense. In addition, it is worth mentioning -s\sya-, which are related to reflexive verbs.
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One of the methods of affixation should also include the prefix, since with the help of ityou can literally change the meaning of a word:

  1. Prefixes -without/without- indicate the absence of something. For example, shameless, indifferent.
  2. -Re- denotes superiority if it is an adjective or repetition of actions if the part of speech is a verb. For example, lovely, reboot.
  3. -Anti\contra- are prefixes that show the opposite meaning. For example, counterattack.
  4. -Pri- means "joining, approaching": come, seaside.
  5. -Above- indicates that something is on top of another. The prefix -under- has the opposite meaning.
  6. -О\ob- denotes the presence of an error, indicates the result that remains after some action. For example, a typo, fragments, and others.
  7. The prefix -not- has the meaning of "denying" something.
  8. -Before- indicates the end of the action: reached, reported.
  9. -Re- often indicates the beginning of a repetitive action or process. For example, reorganization and so on.
  10. -B- denotes inward movement. On the contrary, the prefix -you- indicates action from within, outside.
  11. -De\ dez- have the meaning of "deleting, stopping" something. For example, disinfection.
  12. Moreover, in Russian there are prefixes that indicate the direction: -for- - this is behind, behind; -on- is above, above something; -on- is when something is on the surface of something; -between- is between something.

Affixation is what helps to enrich any language with new words. Russian has a lot of prefixesand suffixes. Sometimes it is difficult for foreigners to apply them correctly in practice. I wonder how Russian affixes differ from foreign ones?

The study of linguistics

Suffixes in English

Affixation in English is the same word formation. They can be divided into groups depending on their properties.

  1. Suffixes that will define the characteristics of various professions. These include: -er, -ent\ant, -ian, -ess. For example, write - writer (write - writer).
  2. Another group of suffixes forms a noun from a verb. Among them are the following: -ment, -ion, -ism. By themselves, they mean some kind of action, process or phenomenon. For example, revolution (revolution), movement (movement, movement).
  3. Suffixes indicating state or quality, property: -ance / -ence, -dom, -hood, -ity, -ness, -ship, -th. For example, childhood (childhood), freedom (will, freedom).
  4. There is a separate group of suffixes that form only adjectives. Each of them has its own meaning: -ful - full; -less - the absence of something; -able, -ible - defines a quality or property; -ic and -al - related to something; -ous - conveys the characteristics of the subject; -ish is similar or expresses nationality; -ive - property of something;
  5. Verbs are formed using the following suffixes: -ate, -en, -ify, -ize, -ise. For example, activate (activate), verify (confirm).
  6. Adverbs have one suffix -ly (loudly - loudly).
Suffixes and prefixes


English also has prefixes to help form new words. These include:

  1. The prefixes il- and ir- must be used before the letters l- and r-: logical - illogical (logical \ illogical).
  2. Im- should be placed before the letter p-. For example, imposible (impossible), impolite (impolite).
  3. In- usually comes before c- or ac-: inaccurate (sloppy).
  4. Prefixes un- and dis- have a negative meaning, they speak of the absence or lack of something. For example, disorganized (disorganized), dissatisfy (not satisfy).
  5. Mis- means "erroneous, wrong": misfortune (failure), misleading (misleading).
  6. Co- means "cooperation": cooperate (cooperate).
  7. Prefixes over- and out- are often used to indicate superiority over something, to show excess. For example, overcome (overcome), outclass (surpass).
  8. The repetition of an action can be indicated using the prefix re-: remove (move), return (return).
  9. De- means "reverse, opposite": defrost (unfreeze).
  10. Pre- indicates an action or process that was before something. For example, prejudgment (condemn ahead of time).
  11. The prefix sub- means "reduction, reduction".

Almost all prefixes refer to a negative value. However, some may indicate the absence or lack of something. It is necessary to understand this fine line in order tolearn how to use prefixes in English correctly.

Definition of affixation

In Russian and English, you can find prefixes or suffixes that reflect the same meaning. We can see this in the example of the prefixes re- and re-, which mean the repetition of an action.

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