Adjective declension. Adjective and mixed declension

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Adjective declension. Adjective and mixed declension
Adjective declension. Adjective and mixed declension
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Declinations in Russian are studied in elementary school. Many still remember the names of cases and tables of endings. Declension is the inflection of nominal parts of speech according to gender, number or case. Let us examine in more detail how nouns and adjectives decline in Russian. Learn what the adjective declension is.

Nouns

Cases of the Russian language

All Russian words can be either singular (chair, tree) or plural (chairs, desks). Each noun can be in one of six cases. Also, the nominal part of speech can refer to one of the declensions. This includes, for example, the adjective declension of nouns (this is a change in nominal forms of I. p. singular, having adjective endings in I. p. singular). Consider them in the comparison table below.

Cases. Table

Case names

Question

Explanation

Example

1

Nominative (I. p.)

who? what?

This is considered the initial form of the nominal part of speech. The subject is always in this case.

Cucumber, cloud, puppy, Vanessa, spruce

2

Genitive

(R.p.)

whom? what?

To make it easier to ask a question, you can use an additional word. For example: "There is nothing?" or “No one?”

Cucumber, clouds, puppy, Vanessa, spruce

3

Dative

(L.p.)

who? what?

In this case, you can also ask a question using an additional word. For example: "Give to whom?" or “Give what?”

Cucumber, cloud, puppy, Vanessa, spruce

4

Accusative

(V.p.)

whom? what?

In this case, the question "whom?" coincides with R. p., but in order not to confuse these two cases, it is necessary to use an auxiliary word: “I see whom?”

Cucumber, cloud, puppy, Vanessa, spruce

5

Creative

(Etc.)

who? what?

In this case, you can ask the question like this: “Satisfied with whom?” or “Satisfied with what?”

Cucumber, cloud, puppy, Vanessa, spruce

6

Prepositional

(P.p.)

about who? about what?

Usually nouns in P. p. are used with a preposition. Let's ask the question: "I'm thinking about whom?" or “Thinking about what?”

Cucumber, Cloud, Puppy, Vanessa, Spruce

Declination by numbers

Most nouns can be both plural and singular. For example: a cup - cups, a cat - cats, a house - houses. But, as with any rule, there are exceptions. Some nouns can only be singular. h:

  • designation of substances (sugar, dust, water, iron);
  • abstract nouns (good, anger, fun, laughter, gray hair);
  • proper names (Sevastopol, Caucasus, America, Volga);
  • collective names (students, animals, foliage, dishes).

Other nouns can only be plural. h., for example:

  • expressing substances (ink, sawdust, blush);
  • periods of time (day, holidays, weekdays);
  • names of any events, actions (elections, hide and seek, intrigues, chores);
  • compound (paired) names (scissors, glasses, sleigh, gates);
  • collective words (finance, money, jungle);
  • proper names (Alps, novel "Demons", Carpathians).

Nouns in plural. h. declension and gender are not determined.

Declination of nouns. Adjective declension

Noun declensions

Noun declensions can be divided into the following groups:

  1. I-th declension. This includes words that haveendings -a, -z. For example: spring, lord, earth, nanny, kitchen, berry.
  2. II-th declension. This group includes nouns with a zero ending (in the masculine!) and words with the endings -е, -о. For example: cake_, ball_, house_, apprentice, window, grief.
  3. III-th declension. Null ending nouns (feminine!). For example: speech_, flow_, mother_, steppe_.

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd declensions are called substantive.

  1. Adjective type of declension of nouns. This includes words formed from participles or adjectives. Example: canteen, private, bathroom, teachers.
  2. Pronoun type. These are nouns formed from pronouns, or inflected like pronouns. For example: draw, girlish.
  3. Different (only 12, they should be remembered!). These words are: time, burden, udder, name, crown, tribe, banner, flame, stirrup, seed, path, child.
  4. Mixed. This declension is for words denoting surnames ending in -in (-yn), -ov (-ev). For example: Solovyov, Gorchavkin.
  5. Indeclinable (zero declination). This includes words that do not change in cases and numbers, mostly of foreign origin. Example: movie, taxi, lady, coffee, coat.

How to determine the declination?

How to determine declination?

The adjective declension, mixed, substantive or otherwise, is defined as follows:

  1. The word is put in its initial form (IP, singular) and it is determined which of the 7 types it fits.
  2. If the noun does not have the singular form. h., then it is notrefers to none of the declensions: trousers, sleigh, reins.

Adjectives

Ranks of adjectives

Adjectives (full forms!) change depending on the noun used with them. Consider how they bow.

How do adjectives decline?

How are adjectives and nouns related?

1. Adjective declension of adjectives. Changing relative and qualitative nominal parts of speech.

What are these adjectives:

  • Qualitative - express the property of the object itself. They can be of different intensity. For example: yellow - yellower, cold - colder, hard - harder.
  • Relative - describe the property through relation to the subject. The adjective type of declension of such adjectives does not change the degrees of intensity. For example: school, evening, summer, pine, iron.

Examples:

Case

Unit h male

Unit h female

Unit h. medium

Mn. h.

I. p.

warm (floor), birch (bridge)

warm (bath), birch (bark)

warm (blanket), birch (log)

warm (socks), birch (brooms)

R. p.

warm (floor), birch (bridge)

warm (bath), birch (bark)

warm (blanket), birch(log)

warm (socks), birch (brooms)

D. p.

warm (floor), birch (bridge)

warm (bath), birch (bark)

warm (blanket), birch (log)

warm (socks), birch (brooms)

B. p.

warm (floor), birch (bridge)

warm (bath), birch (bark)

warm (blanket), birch (log)

warm (socks), birch (brooms)

T. p.

warm (floor), birch (bridge)

warm (bath), birch (bark)

warm (blanket), birch (log)

warm (socks), birch (brooms)

P. p

warm (field), birch (bridge)

warm (bath), birch (bark)

warm (blanket), birch (log)

warm (socks), birch (brooms)

The adjective declension type is typical for most adjectives.

2. Declension of possessive adjectives with the suffix -й (mixed).

Examples:

Case

Unit h male

Unit h female

Unit h. medium

Mn. h.

I. p.

dog (food), hunting (backpack)

dog (team), hunting (hut)

dog (flair), hunting (weapon)

dog (running), hunting (footprints)

R. p.

dog (food), hunting (backpack)

dog (team), hunting (hut)

canine (sense), hunting (weapons)

dog (race), hunting (footprints)

D. p.

dog (food), hunting (backpack)

dog (team), hunting (hut)

dog (sense), hunting (weapon)

dog (race), hunting (footprints)

B. p.

dog (food), hunting (backpack)

dog (team), hunting (hut)

dog (flair), hunting (weapon)

dog (running), hunting (footprints)

T. p.

dog (food), hunting (backpack)

dog (team), hunting (hut)

dog (sense), hunting (weapon)

dog (races), hunting (tracks)

P. p

dog (stern), hunting (backpack)

dog (team), hunting (hut)

dog (flair), hunting (weapon)

dog (race), hunting (footprints)

3. Declension of possessive adjectives with the suffix -ov (-ev), -in (-yn) (also mixed).

Examples:

Case

Unit h male

Unit h female

Unit h. medium

Mn. h.

I. p.

daddy (table), brothers (phone)

daddy's (book), brother's (wife)

daddy (treasure), brotherly (good)

daddy's (boots), brothers' (skates)

R. p.

daddy's (table), brother's (phone)

daddy's (books), brother's (wife)

daddy's (treasure), brother's (goodness)

daddy's (boots), brother's (skates)

D. p.

daddy's (table), brother's (phone)

daddy's (book), brother's (wife)

daddy's (treasure), brother's (goodness)

daddy's (boots), brother's (skates)

B. p.

daddy (table), brothers (phone)

daddy's (book), brother's (wife)

daddy (treasure), brotherly (good)

daddy's (boots), brothers' (skates)

T. p.

daddy's (table), brother's (phone)

daddy's (book),fraternal (wife)

daddy's (treasure), brotherly (goodness)

daddy's (boots), brother's (skates)

P. p.

daddy's (desk), brother's (phone)

daddy's (book), brother's (wife)

daddy (treasure), brotherly (good)

daddy's (boots), brother's (skates)

Mixed and adjectival declension types of adjectives include the basic principles of changing nominal forms in Russian.

Indefinable adjectives

Declension example

The following adjectives are not inflected:

  • qualitative short form (cold, high, far);
  • qualitative comparative and superlatives, with one basis (better - best, closest - closest);
  • some nationalities (Manti, Hansi);
  • various colors (khaki, beige);
  • certain styles of outfits (corrugated, pleated);
  • words net, gross, (hour) rush.

These adjectives are not included in the adjective and mixed declension. Their trait is immutability. In sentences, inflexible adjectives are placed after the noun instead of before them (like regular adjectives).

The task for the declension of phrases

It can be concluded that the adjective declension is typical for most nouns and adjectives. Mixed - more complex, it combines various ways of forming word forms. Not so easyunderstand all types of declension in Russian, but it is very necessary and important for your speech to be correct and beautiful.

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