Development of languages: stages, role and functions

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Development of languages: stages, role and functions
Development of languages: stages, role and functions

Language is what we use to express our thoughts, ideas, emotions, feelings, interact with other people, get useful information, and develop. It is important to know the history of the development of languages. It is mainly studied by such sciences as linguistics, linguistics and others. In the article we will talk in detail about the role and functions of languages ​​in the modern world, and also consider the process of the formation of the Russian language and the stages of development.

Russian language

The role of language in the world

The history of language development is rich and varied. It is filled with borrowings from other languages, set expressions, interesting stories, unusual metaphors, jargon. The native language is the property of every nation, because history, the past, all victories and defeats, the development of the people themselves are hidden in it. With its help, we communicate, exchange experience, knowledge, culture with each other. Not a single nation is able to live without speech, since it is communication that contributes to its development. In order for the language to become global,the following conditions must be met:

  • First, it must be recognized by all international organizations.
  • Secondly, it must be a popular language used by global communities. For example, UN (United Nations)
  • Third, it is important that the language be as widespread as possible in the world.

Thanks to languages, communication, humanity is improving, creating new technologies. Our civilization is moving forward.

There are a huge number of languages ​​in the world. The official language that everyone should know is English. However, Russian is not far behind, as almost 300 million people speak it. It is distributed in many countries: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan and others.

Russian speech

Language functions

In the modern world, language serves as a means of communication between peoples and nations. The main functions it performs are as follows:

  • information exchange;
  • acquisition of knowledge through the experience of other generations;
  • communication (transmission of thoughts, messages);
  • transmission of emotions through language;
  • with the help of speech you can control behavior, influence society;
  • Through language a person learns his environment, people.

You need to develop your language, literature, culture. The transformation and dissemination of native speech is an important problem in our time, as political ties with other countries are expanding, the country's economy is growing, and the population is increasing.For example, Russian is already the third most widely spoken language. More efforts should be made to develop Russian language lessons and improve the quality of knowledge received by schoolchildren and students.

The sequence of development and formation of the language will be considered on the example of Russian. The language originated from Proto-Slavic (common Slavic), which stood out from the group of Indo-European languages.

Russian language

Early Stage

In general, the development of languages ​​is a slow and gradual process. At this stage, several changes appeared in the Proto-Slavic language that brought the formation and development of Russian speech closer.

  • The role of the weakening of such vowels as [a] and [o] has decreased. Now the sound [a] was pronounced longer, and the sound [o] became short.
  • A new vowel [ъ] stood out, which was read as [o] and [s].
  • There has been a complete change in length and shortness of vowels: [a], [i], [s] are now long, and they have become short - [o], [e], [b], [b].

At this stage, you can observe the appearance of new letters "ы", "ъ" (vowels at that time), which will later be included in the main alphabet of the Russian language. Vowels become less labialized.

Main Stage

The development of the Russian language at the middle stage is felt much stronger. There are new changes that lead to a radical change in phonetic settings.

  • Softening consonants. There was a complete palatalization of such consonants as [g], [k], [x], which were now read before front vowels, like[g], [h] and [w] (i.e. simplification). For example, friend - friend.
  • Over time, a new mitigation of consonants [g], [k], [x] appeared. Now they were read as [з], [ц] and [c]. For example, a thief is a thief.
  • Also became palatalized [s] and [h] before j (i - and). They were read as [w] and [g]. For example, carry - drive.
  • Closed syllables now became open. Diphthongs were simplified to monophthongs, and before vowels they turned into a vowel and a consonant. For example, the diphthong [ou] (ou) turned into [u] (y), and before the vowel into [ov] (ov).

At the second stage, the reading of different letters in the Proto-Slavic language changed a lot, and diphthongs also disappeared.

Russian culture

Late stage

At the last and final stage of the development of the languages ​​of the ancient Slavs, their full separation of their common Slavic (Proto-Slavic) language took place. The late phase lasted from the 5th to the 7th centuries. He was marked by a transition to a new position. During this period, the first dialects appeared, which eventually formed into separate Slavic languages. Now the languages ​​were divided into three groups:

  1. East Slavic.
  2. South Slavic.
  3. West Slavic.

Most scholars and linguists classify Russian as an East Slavic language, as it originated in the east (territorial division of languages).

Church Slavonic

Of course, the development of the Russian literary language depends on several factors:

  • The advent of writing.
  • Baptism of Russia in 988 by Vladimir the First, whichwas the impetus for the creation of a new Church Slavonic language.

With the advent of Christianity, people needed a new transformation of their language. Its new form appeared - the Church Slavonic language, which became the beginning of the development of the entire familiar Russian language. Church Slavonic is the language of Orthodox worship, taking its roots from Bulgarian. Most scholars are of the opinion that it was this language that became the basis for the development of the Russian literary language. Christianity contributed to the spread of religious, liturgical, and partly instructive literature. Thus, two literary languages ​​appear: Old Russian, folk living language (epics, stories, legends) and Old Slavonic (church). Gradually, the influence of these two languages ​​on each other led to the creation of a single Russian literary language.

Moscow language

Literary language of the XV-XVII centuries

Of course, the influence of the Tatar-Mongol yoke had a significant role in the transformation of the Slavic language, in which new borrowings appeared. Over time, after the liberation of Russia from the Tatar-Mongols, the literary language is reborn again in its new form. Moscow becomes its center. The characteristic features of the literary language are the following:

  • the length of the letter "a" (akanye);
  • pronouns: me, you, myself;
  • simple short sentences;
  • there was no longer a dual number;
  • a new verb form of the past tenses appeared, which ended in "l" (sang, ate,danced);
  • a new declension of nouns has appeared (as it is now);
  • explosive letters began to be heard in speech, especially the letter "g";
  • there are endings -evo/-ovo in pronouns (your);
  • vowel weakening.

The advent of printing contributed to the development and spread of the Russian literary language. Literature now received more attention.

Transformations of the literary language of the 18th century

At this stage in the development of the Russian language and speech, significant changes have taken place. Firstly, during the reign of Peter I (1682-1725), the Russian literary language separated from the church language and began to exist independently. Secondly, in 1708 the Russian alphabet was reformed along the lines of European books. Since the 18th century, the literary language has been subjected to a process of Europeanization. New borrowed words from the Romano-Germanic languages ​​appeared in it, and there was a fashion for the French language. Writers often changed Russian into French in their works. Such a reception was considered a sign of education. An example is the world-famous work of the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy "War and Peace".

Russian language

Significant contribution to the language

A significant contribution to the development of the Russian language was made by the famous scientist Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov, who combined all types of Russian speech together, namely the folk language, the command language, as well as various styles of poetry. He also divided literature into three types:

  • Simple syllable.
  • Middle syllable.
  • High syllable.

A huge contribution to the development of the Russian language was also made by such scientists and writers as G. R. Derzhavin, A. N. Radishchev, N. M. Karamzin, D. I. Fonvizin and others. All of them diversified the language with new, unusual metaphors and vivid epithets, discovered new meanings of words, introduced new means of expression into literature: personification, parcelling, and so on. Such great poets as A. S. Pushkin, M. Yu. Lermontov, N. V. Gogol, A. P. Chekhov and others created immortal works of Russian literature, which are considered classics not only here, but even abroad. They made the language richer in catchy aphorisms, various literary devices, introduced new genres to literature (A.P. Chekhov wrote in the style of a realistic novel), interesting phrases appeared from different areas of vocabulary (for example, professional), jargon. Each great writer and poet brought the trends of his era into the literary language, thereby making Russian speech richer and more diverse. Already in the 20th century, active study of the Russian language abroad began. New words from English, Spanish, French, German have appeared in the speech.

Distribution of the Russian language

The development of speech and language is very important for every nation. Do not forget about the development of the great Russian language in the modern world, because every day we communicate with people dear to our hearts on it. Russian speech is the strength and power of the Russian nation.

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