Science 2023, January

Fundamentals of taxonomy of mammals

On what grounds are mammals distinguished into a separate class? What grounds are needed to single out this or that animal in a separate order? For this, there are various anatomical and morphological features, which ones - read in the article

Spacecraft "Juno": tasks and photos

Planetologists are showing great interest in Jupiter, because it is difficult to overestimate its role in the history of the solar system, as well as in its present and future. The Juno spacecraft, which reached the giant planet in 2016 and is currently on a research program in orbit around Jupiter, is set to help scientists solve many of its mysteries

Ashby's laws: content, definition, features

In the field of organization theory, the idea of ​​"necessary variety" is used as a key element in the theoretical framework. In relation to the business world as a whole, Ashby's Cybernetic Law states that a company's degree of relevance must match its degree of internal complexity in order to survive in a competitive market

Measurement - what is it? Measuring. Measurement values

Very often in our lives the word "measurement" occurs. Measurement is a concept that is used in various human activities. In this article, this concept will be considered from several angles

Recombinant protein: production methods and applications

What is a recombinant protein. What is the purpose of the substance. The main five methods of its expression. Treatment, drugs and injections based on recombinant protein. International practices for the use of the substance and its production

Atmospheric pressure and air weight. Formula, calculations, experiments

It follows from the very concept of atmospheric pressure that air must have weight, otherwise it could not exert pressure. But we do not notice this, it seems to us that the air is weightless. Before talking about atmospheric pressure, you need to prove that air has weight, you need to somehow weigh it. We will consider the weight of air and atmospheric pressure in detail in the article, studying them with the help of experiments

Topics in sociology, its directions and history of origin

Sociology is the science of society, its connections, features of structure and functioning. In the process of studying its complex systems, patterns of human behavior are revealed and interactions between the individual and society are explained. The main task of sociology is to predict events and manage them

Lev Nikolaevich Gumilyov. Passionary theory of ethnogenesis: basic concepts

Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev (09/18/1912 - 06/15/1992) was engaged in various activities: he was an ethnologist, archaeologist, writer, translator, etc. But Lev Nikolaevich was remembered in the Soviet Union as the author of the passionate theory of ethnogenesis. Gumilyov, with the help of her, was able to answer many questions asked by ethnologists and philosophers

Poke method: description and application

Many books have been written on how to properly achieve goals, what tests a person must go through in order to achieve exactly the specified result, no more, no less. However, the greatest achievements were not made according to the instructions. People, driven by intuition and faith in themselves and their work, began to go into the unknown, probing the difficult path with attempts, drawing conclusions from them and starting all over again, at random

Vilfredo Pareto: biography, main ideas, main works. Elite theory by Vilfredo Pareto

Vilfredo Pareto (years of life - 1848-1923) - a well-known sociologist and economist. He is one of the founders of the theory of elites, according to which society has a pyramidal shape. At the top of the pyramid is the elite, which largely determines the life of society as a whole

The most unusual engines and their principle of operation

Many engines never became mainstream because they were rejected by developers, experts and investors. Today we recall the truly few engine configurations - both in terms of the number of cylinders and their arrangement

Quantum levitation (Meissner effect): scientific explanation

The Meissner effect is the process of absolute displacement of the magnetic field from the entire volume of the conductor. This usually occurs during the transition of the conductor to the superconducting state. The Meissner effect is divided into full and partial, depending on the quality of the superconductors. The full Meissner effect is observed when the magnetic field is completely displaced

Inkerman stone - snow-white splendor

Sevastopol is called the white city for a reason. It is almost entirely built of Inkerman stone. Rome and Alexandria also used this stone for building. Many churches of the Golden Ring of Russia were built from snow-white Crimean limestone. During Soviet times, white limestone was used for the construction of the Lenin Library, cladding of buildings of important state systems

What is a peptide bond and sickle cell anemia

The bond in protein peptides is shorter than other compounds of peptide groups, as it has a partial double bond characteristic. Considering what a peptide bond is, we can conclude that its mobility is low. The electronic construction of the peptide bond sets the solid planar structure of the group of peptides. The planes of such groups are located at an angle to each other

How old is the world? Hypotheses for the origin of life on Earth

In ancient times, concepts such as the age of the entire universe and the age of the Earth had strong differences. The basis for assessing age and life on planet Earth for Christian philosophers was the Bible. As a rule, they gave our planet only a few thousand years of age

Collider in Russia. NICA project (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility). Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna near Moscow

A new acceleration complex is being created in Russia on the basis of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. It is called NICA - Nuclotron based Ion Collider facility and is located in Dubna. The purpose of the building is to study and discover new properties of the dense matter of baryons

A macromolecular compound is Definition, composition, characteristics, properties

High molecular weight compounds are substances of natural and synthetic origin, the molecular weight of which reaches millions. In this article, we review the progress in the development of analytical methods for the direct determination of compounds using readily available instruments

Martin Heidegger "What is metaphysics"

If the being whose meaning Heidegger is looking for seems so elusive, it is because it is not an essence. It's not something; it is not a creature. "Being is essentially different from being, from beings." This is the answer to the question: "What is Heidegger's metaphysics", which describes existence as the will of a non-existent being

Church-Turing thesis: basic concepts, definition, computable functions, meaning and application

The Church-Turing thesis refers to the concept of an efficient, systematic, or mechanical method in logic, mathematics, and computer science. It is formulated as a description of the intuitive concept of computability and, in relation to general recursive functions, is more often called Church's thesis. It also refers to the theory of computer-computable functions. The thesis appeared in the 1930s, when computers themselves did not yet exist

What is the Enigma cipher? History, description

The Enigma cipher was a field cipher used by the Germans during World War II. Enigma is one of the most famous encryption machines in history. The first Enigma machine was invented by a German engineer named Arthur Scherbius at the end of World War I

Isophthalic acid: description, properties, preparation and application

Isophthalic acid: a brief description of the compound, empirical and structural formula. Physical and chemical properties. Getting isophthalic acid. The use of this substance in various industries. Properties of coatings made using isophthalic acid

The diameter of the planets of the solar system in comparison

The solar system in which our Earth is located, consists of many objects. The most important of these are the planets that revolve around the Sun. The planets differ significantly from each other in many ways. This article is devoted to comparing the diameters of the planets of the solar system

Meteorite Seimchan: history, properties and study

The "big brother" of the Chelyabinsk meteorite is the name given to this unique celestial body that fell to the surface of our planet in the Magadan region of Russia. It belongs to a rare type of iron-stony meteorites with a heterogeneous structure, including inclusions of olivine. The ancient age of the stone and its unique features may shed light on the origin of the solar system and life on our planet in the future

Cadmium sulfide: properties, preparation and application

Cadmium sulfide: general description of the compound, physical, mechanical and chemical properties. Methods for obtaining this substance and films based on it. Applications and prospects for its use as a coating for solar panels

How to use the telescope: description, assembly, setup

Buying their first telescope, an optical time machine to explore the universe, amateur astronomers have different goals. Some aspire to discover comets or someday publish astro photography, others just want to enjoy views of the moon and planets from time to time. Whatever your goals, one thing is certain: you should start from scratch by learning how to use a telescope

Olivine belt - fact or fiction?

The olivine belt of the Earth is known in our time thanks to the science fiction novel "The Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin". The "Gold Rush", the scientific and technological revolution of the early 20th century and the aggravated social problems of that time - everything was mixed up in this literary work of A. N. Tolstoy. Before starting work, the writer consulted with scientists. However, does the olivine belt actually exist, or is it just a metaphor?

Conversation analysis as a method of sociolinguistic research

Conversation Analysis (AB) is an approach to the study of social interaction. It covers verbal and non-verbal behavior in everyday life situations. Its methods are adapted to cover targeted and institutional interactions that occur in doctors' offices, courts, law enforcement, helplines, educational institutions, and the media

Who is a geneticist? Gregor Johann Mendel is the founder of genetics. History of genetics

Who is a geneticist, what does he do. The history of genetics from its foundation to the present day. Use of scientific discoveries in the field of genetics in medicine, agriculture, and other sciences. Who is Gregor Johann Mendel, what is his contribution to the formation and development of genetics as a science

Social modernization of society: concept, features, examples

What is social modernization. What stages of modernization of society have occurred in the history of mankind. What indicators determine the level of development of the country. What other theories of development of society exist. Why Russia failed to modernize society and switch to the Western path of development

Gene recombination: mechanisms of the process

Gene recombination is the exchange of genetic material between different organisms. It results in the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in both parents. Most of these genetic exchanges occur naturally

Neutrino particle: definition, properties, description. Neutrino oscillations are

A neutrino is an elementary particle that is very similar to an electron, but has no electric charge. It has a very small mass, which can even be zero

Optical glass with convex-concave surfaces: manufacturing, application. Lens, magnifying glass

Lenses have been known since antiquity, but optical glass, widely used in modern devices, began to be produced only in the 17th century

Types and forms of communication: examples. Communication as a form of communication

In literal translation, the concept of communication means "common", "shared by all". The exchange of information leads to mutual understanding necessary to achieve the goal

Coanda effect - what is it?

The Coanda effect is a long-discovered phenomenon based on the pressure difference along the flow height. The outflowing flow of liquid or gas is attracted to the adjacent surface. While this effect is used in secondary areas, but perhaps in the future it will become the basis for the creation of new aircraft

Engine torque units

As part of the technical characteristics of any engine there is a torque indicator. The article describes the concept of torque, the mechanism of its occurrence and the units of its measurement. The relationship between torque and power is also shown

Aircraft wing lift: formula

What prevents a multi-ton aircraft from falling? How does he manage to stay in the air and ignore the universal law of gravity? Why does the lifting force arise and what does it depend on? You can find answers to these and other questions in this article

Aircraft wing profile: types, technical and aerodynamic characteristics, calculation method and maximum lifting force

The wing profile of an aircraft is one of the factors that determine the aerodynamic qualities of an aircraft. Depending on the speed characteristics, dimensions and tasks assigned to the aircraft, its wing profiles differ significantly and are the product of many years of research and numerous experiments

The principle and method of measurement. General measurement methods. What are the measuring instruments

The article is devoted to the principles, methods and instruments of measurement. In particular, the most popular measurement methods, as well as devices that implement them, are considered

The science of man. What sciences study man

Many sciences study man as a biological species, as part of society, as an individual. But were they able to answer the question of what is a person?

Scientific activity. Development of scientific activity

Scientific activity is a specific activity of people, the main purpose of which is to obtain new knowledge about reality. Knowledge is its main product. However, he is not the only one. Other products of science include the scientific style of rationality, which extends to various areas of human activity, and a variety of devices, methods, and installations that are used outside of science (mainly in production)