How are directional prepositions used in English?

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How are directional prepositions used in English?
How are directional prepositions used in English?
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Prepositions in sentences connect a noun (or pronoun) with other words. Almost all English prepositions can be translated differently depending on the context. Each of them has special rules of use and indicates a place, time or direction. In this article, we will look at prepositions of direction in English.

Prepositions of direction. Table

Direction prepositions in English

These prepositions express the peculiarity of the movement of a person or object, its trajectory.

Preposition

How to read

Translation

1

across

[eˈcros]

via

2

along

[eˈlon]

along

3

around

[eˈround]

around

4

down

[down]

down

5

from

[from]

from

6

into

[ˈintu]

in, inside

7

out of/away from

[out ov/aˈway from]

out, out

8

over/above

[ˈouwe/eˈbav]

over

9

through

[shit]

through, through

10

to

[tu]

to something

11

under/below

[ˈande/biˈlow]

under

12

up

[an]

up

Prepositions of direction in English. Examples

Examples with prepositions of direction in English

When you need to cross to the other side of a road, street or square, use the preposition across in a sentence. For example:

  1. The dog ran across the field to me. The dog ran across the field towards me.
  2. Meth was waiting for the green light to go across the street. Matt was waiting for the green light tocross the street.

The word along (translation - along) is used to describe movement along an object. For example:

  1. The excursion path was held along the beautiful river. The sightseeing trail ran along a beautiful river.
  2. All the boxes were laid out along the wall. All the boxes were laid out along the wall.

The preposition around (around) denotes movement in a circle. For example:

  1. Puppies chased each other around the house. The puppies were chasing each other around the house.
  2. A beautiful fence was put around the school. A beautiful fence was put up around the school.

The preposition down (translation - down) indicates that the movement is heading down. For example:

  1. Our group went down to the foot of the mountain. Our group descended to the foot of the mountain.
  2. The Elevator slowly went down to the 1st floor. The elevator slowly descended to the first floor.

The word from (from) indicates the distance from point A to point B or the place where the movement started. For example:

  1. We went from Monte Carlo early in the morning. We left Monte Carlo early in the morning.
  2. The plane is heading from Vladivostok to Ufa. The plane is heading from Vladivostok to Ufa.

The preposition into (translation - inside) tells about the action directed inside the object. The word into implies complete immersion in some object, it is used when the very fact of moving inside the object is important. This preposition should not be confused with to! For example:

  1. I put the berries into a little basket. I put berries insmall basket.
  2. We ran into the house to hide from the rain. We ran into the house to get out of the rain.

The words out of and away from (from inside, out) are similar in meaning and tell about the appearance of an object or person from somewhere inside. The preposition out of tells about taking an object out of something, and away from indicates leaving a place. For example:

  1. A small fawn ran away from the forest. A small deer ran out of the forest.
  2. I took the cookies out of the box. I took the cookies out of the box.

The prepositions over and above (translation - over) are also close in meaning. The only difference is that over can describe movement in different planes, and above - only in one. For example:

  1. Our airplane flew above the forest. Our airplane flew over the forest.
  2. Butterflies fluttered over the blossoming flowers. Butterflies fluttered over the blooming flowers.

The word through (through) express movement through something. For example:

  1. The streetlight came through the curtains. Light from a street lamp shone through the curtains.
  2. We drove through a long tunnel. We drove through a long tunnel.

The most common preposition of direction is to (translated - to, to). It is used in conversations about routine, everyday activities, upcoming changes. For example:

  1. I bought three plane tickets to Prague. I bought three plane tickets to Prague.
  2. Today we went to Marie's birthday party. Today we went to Marie's for her birthday.

The prepositions under and below (under) are similar in meaning, they denote actions that are performed under the object. Only under describes the direction in one plane, and below - in different planes. For example:

  1. The hare jumped below my trailer. A hare jumped under my trailer.
  2. My dog ​​crawled under the bed. My dog ​​crawled under the bed.

The word up (translated - up) denotes an upward movement. For example:

  1. The road went up. The road went up.
  2. We ran up the path. We ran up the path.

English and Russian prepositions. Usage difference

English prepositions

In English grammar, nouns do not have case endings, so words in sentences are linked only by prepositions. In Russian, on the contrary, words are connected with each other by case endings. Let's compare one sentence in Russian and in English:

  1. Give this letter to the courier. In this example, no prepositions are required, the connection is conveyed by endings in the appropriate case.
  2. Give this letter to the courier. In an English sentence, the connection is indicated by the preposition to. When translating such statements into Russian, prepositions are usually omitted.

There is another difference in how prepositions of direction are used in English and Russian. When a preposition is needed after some verbs in a Russian sentence, in English, on the contrary, it is not put. For example:

  1. Enter the room. Enter the room.
  2. Leave work. Get away withwork.

Exercises for prepositions of direction in English

Denoting actions with English prepositions

To consolidate the material covered, practice and do some exercises.

Exercise 1. Translate the sentences.

  1. Our route passed through the reserve.
  2. The turtle crawled slowly across the road.
  3. A hamster suddenly ran out of a mink.
  4. There was a loud barking from the alley.
  5. I put a thick notebook into my bags.

Exercise 2. Translate, put the prepositions of direction correctly.

  1. I walked … the road for a long time.
  2. A flock of pigeons flew … us.
  3. Marcus climbed … the hill.
  4. Mom put my notebooks … the drawer.
  5. My brother and I are going … grandma.

Exercise 3. Translate into English.

  1. Mike and I dream of traveling around the world.
  2. Our boat floated down the river.
  3. The stop was far from home.
  4. Stones were visible through the water.
  5. I hid the ring under a paper napkin.

Answers

Check if you have completed the tasks on the topic "Prepositions of Direction in English" correctly.

Exercise 1:

  1. Our route passed through the reserve.
  2. The turtle crawled slowly across the road.
  3. A hamster suddenly ran out of a hole.
  4. A loud barking came from the alley.
  5. I put a thick notebook in my bag.

Exercise 2:

  1. I was walkingalong the road for a long time (along).
  2. A flock of doves flew over us (over).
  3. Marcus went up the hill (up).
  4. Mom put my notebooks in a drawer (into).
  5. My brother and I are going to grandma's (to).

Exercise 3:

  1. Mike and I dream of traveling around the world.
  2. Our boat was heading down the river.
  3. The stop was far from home.
  4. You could see rocks through the water.
  5. I hid the ring under a paper napkin.

To learn the prepositions of direction in English, you must not only memorize them, but also be able to use them correctly in everyday speech. With constant practice and repetition, this can be achieved. It will be easy for you to understand and remember everything!

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