History 2023, January

Fortress of St. Elizabeth - one of the two earthen fortresses of the XVIII century in the world

The fortress was founded by decree of Queen Elizabeth on January 11, 1752. In fact, it was founded on June 18, 1754, since the search for a specific location of a strategic object took a long time. This is quite natural, since the height of the earth above sea level in the territory of the current Kirovohrad region is uneven

Composition of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU under Brezhnev: list

The Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU was created in October 1917 by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, who gave him the authority of political leadership of an armed coup. The members of this leadership of the CP were a real party elite, possessing immunity, and exerting a huge influence not only on the policy of the party, but also on the life of the vast Land of Soviets. In fact, the Politburo can be safely called the top leadership of the Soviet Union

Revolution of 1918–1919 in Germany: causes, chronology of events and consequences

The First World War had a negative impact on the German economy. And in the fall of 1918, a crisis situation arose in this country. Workers rallied demanding an improved economic situation and a society without annexations. Gradually, the army and navy joined the ranks of the dissatisfied. The tension in the society grew. And soon the revolution broke out

Dinosaurs with spikes on their backs: name, description with photo

The Mesozoic era is still a mystery to us. Despite the large number of new discoveries, scientists still can only speculate about the structure of the world of that time. Nevertheless, dinosaurs with spikes on their backs and many other features have already become familiar to us creatures that lived in the Mesozoic era

Soda water dispenser USSR: history, photo and description

Soda water machines in the USSR are unlikely to be understood by today's youth. It's hard to believe, but the invention of Schwepp in 1783 is considered to be the first such device. In many ways, this is surprising because machine guns came to the USSR many times later and became popular since the 1950s

Construction of Moscow State University: years, history, interesting facts

One of the oldest and largest universities in Russia is Moscow State University. Its construction began in the distant 1755. Since 1940, the university has been named after Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. Now the university includes 15 research institutes, more than 40 faculties, 300 departments and 6 branches, five of which are located in the CIS countries

Revolvers of the 19th century: history, models of weapons, their features and characteristics

A lot of time has passed since the creation of the first weapon. At one time, the revolver became one of the main ones for close combat. Its main feature was a rotating block of charging chambers, and its history begins at the end of the 16th century. But revolvers began to develop most actively in the 19th century. At that time, a lot of now popular models were released

Who won the cold war: the story in detail

World politics is a delicate matter that is not easy to control even the leaders of countries. Very often we become witnesses or participants in state conflicts that occur within the country and abroad. One of these confrontations was the Cold War

The very first car in the world: photo, brand, who invented

Cars have long become a familiar means of transportation for each of us. But it is difficult to imagine how many stages the car went through before becoming everyday transport. And its history is really very long and begins long before the invention of the prototype of a modern car

The history of underwear. Women's slimming corsets. Underwear for women and men

There is hardly another item in the history of the human wardrobe that causes as much speculation and controversy as underwear. Always hidden under clothes, it did not retain any exact information about itself for experts, but it left a lot of room for imagination and all sorts of conjectures

Ancient Celts: where they lived, lifestyle and traditions

In the I century BC. e. the Celts were expelled from the continent, and the lands of their stay were now limited only to Ireland, England and Wales. The arrival of the Romans in 43 on the island of Britain significantly reduced the territory of the exiles, and the Anglo-Saxons who appeared in the 5th century pushed them back to the outskirts of the island

The Baghdad Pact: essence, history of creation and collapse

The planned block in the territories of the Near and Middle East was considered by American and British politicians as a defense of the southern border of NATO and a cordon from the geopolitical direction of the USSR towards non-freezing seas. It was planned that the Baghdad Pact is the very final link that can close the chain of military-political alliances around the Soviet Union and its adjacent territories

Poland after World War II: history, population and domestic politics

One of Poland's most difficult tasks after World War II was to secure its western borders. Germany only in 1970 was able to agree with the inviolability of the western border of the Polish state

Hanoverian dynasty: years, representatives, role in the history of Great Britain

From 1788, the ruler of England began to experience bouts of mental disorder, which over time became more and more frequent, until in 1810 he finally lost his mind. His eldest son, the Prince of Wales, was appointed regent

Features of the civil war in Kazakhstan

People's resistance against the Whites and interventionists began to operate from the first months of hostilities. It disorganized the rear of the enemy in every possible way with sudden blows, destroying his communications and intercepting the convoys. Examples of the heroic struggle of the working class are the Kustanai district, the Trans-Ural side, the participants in the Mariinsky uprising and the legendary Cherkasy defense

Hygiene in medieval Europe: myths, historical facts, real stories, hygienic and domestic difficulties

It is a mistake to assume that the attitude towards garbage and sewage in the Middle Ages was more loyal than it is now. The very fact of the existence of cesspools in cities and castles suggests otherwise. Another conversation is that city services did not always have time to cope with maintaining order and cleanliness

Alsace-Lorraine - the "imperial land" of the German Empire: history, administrative center, state structure

Germany did not stop trying to win the sympathy of the inhabitants of the annexed territories and in every possible way showed concern for them. In particular, the infrastructure was improved and much attention was paid to the educational system. However, the imposed regime continued to cause discontent among the population, brought up in the spirit of the French Revolution

Paula Hitler - Adolf Hitler's younger sister: biography, personal life

Being a politically significant figure, and later the leader of the country, Adolf Hitler directly or indirectly continued to participate in the life of Paula, although they rarely saw each other. However, despite financial assistance, he never provided his sister with patronage in her career

Eric the Red (950-1003) - Scandinavian navigator and discoverer: biography, family

Greenland owes its discovery to the Norwegian Erik the Red (950-1003), who went in search of new lands, as he was expelled from Iceland for his violent temper. In fiction, Eric the Red, like other Vikings, has a somewhat ennobled image, but in fact his real life was a series of endless skirmishes, including bloodshed and robbery

Where Genghis Khan is buried: legends and hypotheses. Great Khan of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan

For centuries, historians and treasure hunters have been trying to find the place where Genghis Khan is buried, but this mystery remains unsolved. In 1923-1926, the expedition of the geographer P.K. Kozlov, traveling through Altai, stumbled upon an interesting find

Woman of the 19th century: photos, how they looked, how they dressed, lifestyle

With some irony, a Victorian-era philosopher remarked that a 19th-century woman had a limited choice: she could be either a queen or no one. For many centuries, young girls left their parental home, entering into marriage, while not making this decision on their own, only on the basis of the consent of their parents. Divorce could also be concluded only on the basis of the request of the husband, without questioning his word

A specific peasant is Definition, history

The real estate of the appanage peasants belonged to the department, and movable property could be transported only with the permission of officials. The specific peasant is a completely bonded person. Even the personal rights of specific peasants were infringed more strongly than state or landowners. It was more difficult for them to redeem or earn freedom. The appanage department controlled even the marriages of appanage peasants assigned to it

3rd shock army: composition, commanders, combat path

November 7, 1941, in addition to the military parade in Moscow, parades of military reserves were also held in Voronezh and Kuibyshev. The parade in Kuibyshev was commanded by Lieutenant General Purkaev. On December 25, 1941, he took command of the 3rd Shock Army. The name eloquently said that the rank and file and command personnel would have to fight on the most difficult sectors of the front. At the cutting edge of the attack. In the direction of the main attack

Why did Khrushchev give Crimea to Ukraine? What are the reasons for the annexation of Crimea to Ukraine?

Why did Khrushchev give up Crimea? This question is being asked by many today. In connection with the events of recent months, myths about the territorial affiliation of Crimea have resurfaced and swirled in the information space. The legend of Nikita Khrushchev's "royal gift" is especially actively exaggerated. Say, with his sole (and therefore illegitimate) decision, he gave the peninsula to Ukraine

How many people Stalin killed: years of government, historical facts, repressions during the Stalinist regime

About the times of Stalin's rule, the opinion of our generation varies. Someone considers him an impressive leader, others are horrified by the scale of his cruel policy. Many facts are still the subject of controversy even at the official level

Women of Hitler: history of relationships, photos, fate

"The embodiment of the devil in the human body" - so many called Adolf Hitler. And not by accident. It is difficult to imagine that such a monster could have human light feelings. But, like any other man, the Fuhrer could not resist the female charm. Hitler was loved by women. This can be said unambiguously. Who are Hitler's women? Killers, mistresses? We will talk in more detail about the representatives of the weaker sex, who were part of the inner circle of the great Fuhrer

Reforms of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov. Board of Alexei Mikhailovich

Aleksey Mikhailovich Romanov is the second sovereign from the Romanov family and the son of the first tsar of the great dynasty. He took the throne at the age of 16. During his reign, popular riots, a split in the church, reunification with Ukraine and other cardinal transformations took place in the country. Alexey Mikhailovich carried out reforms taking into account the withdrawal of the country from a difficult situation

Ancient races: theories of the prehistory of mankind, the names of races and the causes of death

Today, researchers deny the opportunistic nature of a large number of racial attributes. The populations that carried them were simply lucky in terms of evolution. In turn, this made it possible to consolidate and spread a random set of attributes

History of "MMM": the creator and essence of the ingenious deception

Each of our compatriots is well aware of the history of the financial pyramid "MMM". But some representatives of the younger generation already remember this very vaguely. Therefore, it will be very useful and instructive to talk about it

The history of playing cards: when did playing cards appear

The popularity of playing cards over the centuries is easily explained: with them you can have a good time with friends playing or card tricks, play complex solitaire alone, tell fortunes or build a house of cards. And all this with the help of a small deck that you can take with you to the beach or on a picnic

How Catherine the Great died: cause of death, burial place

How did Catherine the Great die? This question is of interest to many today. After the death of the empress, various rumors about her death spread throughout the country. Who distributed them and why it was necessary, let's try to figure it out

Ship "Victory": main characteristics, participation in the Battle of Trafalgar. HMS Victory

May 7, 1765 HMS Victory was launched from the old dock at Chatham Royal Dockyard. In later years, he gained fame in the American and French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. In 1805, the ship became famous as the flagship of Vice Admiral Nelson in Britain's greatest naval battle of Trafalgar

Population of the Earth in 1900 and subsequent growth

Due to the fact that technologies such as electricity, medicine, transportation, have become widespread, life expectancy has increased, infant mortality has decreased and food has become more affordable. That is, with the improvement of living conditions, the population began to grow much faster than ever before in the history of mankind

Ilion - is it a fiction of Homer or a historical place?

The problem of the historical value of Homer's Ilion faces the same questions as Plato's Atlantis. In both cases, the story of the ancient writers is regarded by some people as true, and by others as mythology or fiction

Medieval engravings: photo, description of features

Interest in engraving was originally due to the easy way to obtain a huge number of images with minimal cost. One engraving could be published in large numbers. This was one of the main factors in the continuous development of engraving techniques

Houses of the 19th century: features of architecture. Village houses. House of a nobleman. Profitable houses in Russia of the 19th century

19th century houses are a characteristic feature of the new era of developing capitalism. At this time, the appearance of large cities in Russia changed greatly. Technological progress and a growing new class - large merchants, owners of factories and factories set new tasks for architects. New types of buildings were built, stations, large shops, entertainment facilities: theaters, circuses. Capitalism in architecture was also characterized by the appearance of profitable apartment buildings in cities

Ste alth plane shot down in Yugoslavia: history facts

In March 1999, on the third day of the bombing of Yugoslavia by the NATO coalition, the US Air Force received a sensitive slap in the face: the air defense of Yugoslavia shot down a Ste alth aircraft - a Lockheed F-117 Nighththawk ste alth fighter. In the 26 years of operation from 1983 to retirement in 2008, no other F-117 was lost in combat with the enemy

Where and how was Bandera killed: details of death

After 60 years, the world is again concerned about the question of how Bandera was killed. The death sentence to the executioner and tormentor of tens of thousands of citizens of the Soviet Union: Ukrainians, Russians, Poles, Jews, issued by the Supreme Court of the USSR, was carried out on 10/15/1959. It was not an ordinary murder, but an act of retribution for monstrous atrocities, which is why it probably gave rise to many rumors and conjectures

Wernher von Braun: biography, family, photos and interesting facts

The article reveals the biography of Wernher von Braun, the famous rocket scientist. His career began under the auspices of Hitler himself, and ended on the side of the main enemy - the United States. Von Braun's whole life was subordinated to one dream - to explore outer space and land on the moon

Creation of a nuclear missile shield in the USSR

As paradoxical as it sounds, the main impetus for the creation of a new type of weapon was the Treaty of Versailles. Under its terms, Germany could not develop and have modern armored vehicles, combat aircraft and the navy. Missiles, especially ballistic missiles, were not mentioned in the treaty. However, there were no missiles then either