Sociology is the science of society, its connections, features of structure and functioning. In the process of studying its complex systems, patterns of human behavior are revealed and interactions between the individual and society are explained. The main task of sociology is to predict and manage events.
History of the development of science
The origin of science dates back to ancient times. Topics in the sociology of that time were completely different. Then philosophers tried to find answers to questions related to society and its phenomena. Thinkers were interested in why people in a given situation act in this way and not otherwise. They compared individuals of different nationalities and tried to build scientific hypotheses to explain social phenomena.
You can prepare reports on the history of the development of sociology on the topics:
- Sociology in antiquity.
- Sociology in the Middle Ages.
- Sociology in the Renaissance.
- Sociology of Modern Times.
- First attempts to describe society.
- Sociology of O. Kont.
- Sociology andpositivism.
- Sociology of S. Saint-Simon.
Some scholars believe that sociology is a modern science that originates in the West.
But one thing is certain: this science of society is divided into three stages.
The first stage is associated with the pre-industrial period, which ends at the beginning of the twentieth century. Topics in the sociology of this period are based on the political changes in the country, the transition to a new economic order and the emergence of feminist movements unusual for that time. It is also worth noting that, since the nineteenth century, the pace of urbanization has been growing in the world, and religion has been overshadowed by scientific revolutions. Early sociology is called classical. It is based on the idea that everything in the world is controlled by the human mind. The main issue of science is the problem of social balance and order.
You can write essays on the classical stage of development of sociology on the topics:
- Naturalism in sociology.
- Sociology of H. Spencer.
- Social Darwinism.
- L. Gumplovich's social group.
- Sociology of W. Sumner.
- Racial Anthropological School.
- Sociology A. Gobineau.
The second stage is the time period between the two world wars. Global changes are taking place in sociology. Scientists are moving "from words to deeds." If earlier the main function of this science wasconstructing theories, now sociologists are engaged in practical activities. At this time, a large number of methods are being developed based on the study of society and the use of the knowledge gained in building ways to influence social groups.
Term papers devoted to the transitional stage of sociology, the topics may be as follows:
- Ferdinand Tennis concept.
- The formal sociology of Georg Simmel.
- Max Weber and Understanding Sociology.
- Emile Durkheim - sociologism.
- Vilfredo Pareto - the theory of elites.
- Chicago school.
- Columbia School.
This stage in the development of sociology begins at the end of World War II and continues to this day. The ideas of an industrial society are becoming fully formed, they are based on the clash of traditions and the views of modern man, in whose life there is no place for superstitions and stereotypes. At present, the directions of modern sociology are quite extensive. If we single out the main ones, then it is worth mentioning the attempt to combine theories with empirical achievements, as well as the creation of completely new "anti-classical" schools and paradigms.
Themes for graduation theses in modern psychology:
- Structural-functionalist paradigm.
- Symbolic interactionism.
- Phenomenological sociology.
- Neo-Marxism of the Frankfurt School.
- Theory of integral synthesis.
- The constructive structuralism of Pierre Bourdieu.
Sociological thinking consists in a very special idea of the world. The main method in this science is based on seeing the general in any particular cases and on establishing patterns based on the conclusions drawn from the results obtained. Despite the individual characteristics of each person individually, all people obey the same laws of behavior, and this is one of the main topics in sociology.
There is a concept of "sociological imagination". It implies an approach to social behavior in which the contemplative can completely abstract from the usual way of life in order to be able to notice the "unusual" in everyday reality. To appreciate the features of this method, it should be remembered that the subject of sociology is, first of all, society and its interrelations. This approach allows us to understand the difference between social and cultural differences, as well as to find the "engines" of society.
Topical topics in sociology
Since the dawn of science, sociologists have been interested in how external social forces influence people's ability to make decisions in their own lives and how a group of individuals was born. Is it a product of the actions of individuals, or, on the contrary, the existence of society gave rise to the development of individual characteristics and abilities in a person? But some scholars believe that the subject of sociology is social action.
There are also two points of view about whetherwhat society is. Some suggest that it is full of harmony and order in its components. Others believe that society in sociology is a set of conflicts of small groups, and that these clashes of interests are the framework on which society is held. In your work, you can compare two theories or develop the provisions of one of them.
Concepts in science
In sociology there is a concept of social reality, which is understood as such a structure of space and time, which shows the relationship between different social positions at a particular moment of the event. To describe this term, the so-called social space is used, which is not real, but is trying to be realized in the physical world. Most scientists in this field define this structure as the result of social relationships and relationships. However, the opinions of some professors differ from these theories.
Paul-Michel Foucault introduced a system of disciplinary space in which he describes the idea that the method of organizing a social structure is only a manifestation of some form of control over groups of people.
At the same time, Yuri Lotman, an outstanding Soviet culturologist, looked at this concept in his own way. He divided social space into external and internal levels. We can say that this is a semiotic process. The internal space is considered as organized, regulated. The external is considered disordered and chaotic. border betweenthese two spaces is formal, it manifests itself through gestures and speech.