Warm currents and their role in the Earth's climate

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Warm currents and their role in the Earth's climate
Warm currents and their role in the Earth's climate
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Currents have a great influence on the formation of the climate of the continents. In this publication, we will consider warm currents.

Concept

The sea current is the forward movement of water masses in the sea and ocean spaces, which is due to the action of various forces. Their direction largely depends on the axial rotation of the Earth.

According to various criteria, scientists distinguish several classifications of currents. In the article, we consider the temperature criterion, that is, warm and cold currents. In them, the water temperature, respectively, is higher or lower than the ambient level. In warm - a few degrees higher, in cold - lower. Warm currents move from warmer latitudes to less warm latitudes, while cold currents move the other way around.

The first increase the air temperature by three to four degrees and add precipitation. Others, on the contrary, reduce the temperature and precipitation.

warm and cold currents

The average annual temperature of warm currents varies from +15 to +25 degrees. They are marked on the map with red arrows indicating the direction of their movement. Below we will consider what warm currents are in the World Ocean.

Gulfstream

One of the most famous warm sea currents thattransports millions of tons of water every second. This is a powerful water stream, thanks to which a mild climate has formed in many European countries. It flows in the Atlantic Ocean along the coast of North America and reaches the island of Newfoundland.

The Gulf Stream is a whole system of warm currents of the Atlantic Ocean, the width of which reaches eighty kilometers. It is rightfully considered the most important element in the thermal regulation of the entire planet. Thanks to him, Ireland and England did not become a glacier.

When colliding with the Labrador current, the Gulf Stream forms the so-called eddies in the ocean. Further, it partially loses its energy as a result of various factors, as a result of which the water flow is reduced.

what warm currents

Recently, some scientists say that the Gulf Stream has changed its direction. Now it is moving towards Greenland, creating a warmer climate in America and a colder climate in Russian Siberia.

Kuroshio

Another of the warm currents, which is located in the Pacific Ocean near the Japanese coast. The name in translation means "dark waters". It carries the warm waters of the seas to the northern latitudes, due to which the climatic conditions of the region soften. The speed of the current varies from two to six kilometers per hour, and the width reaches almost 170 kilometers. In summer, the water warms up to almost thirty degrees Celsius.

Kuroshio is very similar to the aforementioned Gulf Stream. It also greatly influences the formation of weather conditions in the Japanese islands of Kyushu,Honshu and Shikoku. In the west, there is a difference in surface water temperatures.

Brazil Current

Another current passing through the Atlantic Ocean. It is formed from the Equatorial current and is located near the coast of South America, or rather, passes near the Brazilian coast. Therefore, it has such a name. At the Cape of Good Hope, it changes its name to the Transverse, and then off the coast of Africa to the Benguela (South African) Current.

warm currents

Speeds up to two to three kilometers per hour, and the water temperature ranges from eighteen to twenty-six degrees above zero. In the southeast, it faces two cold currents - the Falkland and the West Winds.

Guinea current

The warm Guinean Current slowly flows off the western African coast. In the Gulf of Guinea it moves from west to east and then turns south. Together with other currents, it forms a circulation in the Gulf of Guinea.

Mean annual temperatures are 26-27 degrees Celsius above zero. When moving from west to east, the speed drops, in some places it reaches more than forty kilometers a day, sometimes it reaches almost ninety kilometers.

Its borders change throughout the year. In summer, they expand, and the current shifts slightly to the north. In winter, on the contrary, it shifts to the south. The main source of food is the warm South trade wind current. The Guinea current is shallow as it does not penetrate deep into the water column.

Alaska Current

Moreone warm current is in the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Kuroshio current system. Passing through the Gulf of Alaska, it enters the head of the bay in the north and moves to the southwest. In this place, the current intensifies. Speed ​​- from 0.2 to 0.5 meters per second. In summer, the water warms up to fifteen degrees above zero, and in February the water temperature is two to seven degrees above zero.

temperature of warm currents

Can go to great depths, straight to the bottom. There are seasonal changes in the current caused by the winds.

Thus, the concept of "warm and cold currents" was revealed in the article, as well as warm sea currents that form a warm climate on the continents were considered. In combination with other currents, they can form entire systems.

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