Young scientists are not always familiar with the basic methods and technologies for organizing scientific research. They are not always able to correctly establish the relevance, purposefulness, object and subject of research. This leads to an overestimation of time and labor costs, which lowers the quality of scientific work. This article reveals the content and essence of scientific research, its relevance, the basics of organization and methodology.
Concept and essence
Scientific research refers to the form of existence and development of science. The Federal Law of the Russian Federation of August 23, 1996 "On Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy" defines scientific and research work as an activity aimed at obtaining and applying new knowledge.
Scientific research refers to the process of studying, experimenting, testing theoretical opinions related to the acquisition of scientific knowledge. Not all knowledge can be considered scientific. It is impossible to recognize scientific knowledge that a person receives only on the basis of ordinary observation. They play a major role in people's livesbut they do not reveal the essence of phenomena, the connections between them, they are not able to explain why this phenomenon happens in one way or another.
The correctness of scientific knowledge can be determined not only by logic, but also by its mandatory verification in practice. Scientific knowledge is fundamentally different from blind faith, from the unconditional recognition of this situation as real, without any logical justification or practical verification.
An object is a material or virtual system. The subject is the structure of the system, patterns of cooperation between parts inside and outside the system, different quality characteristics, etc.
Indicators of research organization are characterized by the higher, the higher the scientific nature of the findings and generalizations, the more reliable and productive they are. They should become the basis for new developments. One of the important conditions for conducting research is scientific synthesis, which allows you to establish a connection between phenomena and actions, as well as make scientific conclusions. The deeper these findings and conclusions, the higher the level of research.
Science is understood as the totality of knowledge about the existing patterns in nature and society. Science and the organization of scientific research is not only a collection of acquired knowledge, but also actions to obtain new, previously non-existent information.
The following points stand out as features of science:
- science is aimed at understanding the essence of objects andaction;
- she operates in certain ways and forms, research tools;
- scientific knowledge is characterized by a planned, periodic, logical organization, reliability of the results of research work;
- science has specific methods of substantiating the truth of knowledge.
The basis of science is scientific activity. The organization of scientific activity and research are closely intertwined concepts. In this case, the goal of any analysis is a full-fledged, reliable study of the object, process, their structure, relationships and connections based on the developed principles and methods, as well as obtaining and disseminating the results of research work in practice.
Science is the main factor in ensuring the competitiveness of products and the prestige of the state in the world market, ahead of the development of other activities. Therefore, the leading states of the world pay significant attention to research work, spending significant funds on this.
The main features of the organization of scientific research can be called:
- probabilistic nature of the results;
- uniqueness, which limits the possibility of using typical solutions;
- difficulty and difficulty;
- scale and complexity, which are based on the need to study a huge number of objects and experimental verification of the results obtained;
- relationship between research and practice that intensifies as science becomes mainstreamthe productive force of society.
The purpose of the modern organization of scientific research is to identify a specific object and a full-fledged, reliable study of its structure, characteristics, relationships based on the developed principles and methods of cognition. As well as getting the required results.
Research is classified by type of connection with production, by importance for the economy, by purpose, by source of funding, by duration.
In the first case, research is divided into works that have the following focus:
- creation of new technological actions, machines and structures;
- increase in production productivity;
- improvement of criteria and working conditions;
- shaping a person's personality.
By purpose, there are three forms of organization of scientific research: fundamental, applied and search.
The first of them are aimed at the discovery and analysis of new phenomena, parameters, laws and patterns of nature, as well as the creation of new scientific principles. Their goal is to expand the scientific knowledge of society in order to establish whether it can be applied in human practice. Such studies, carried out on the border of the known and the unknown, have the greatest degree of uncertainty.
Exploratory studies are created on the basis of existing theoretical works and are aimed at identifying the causes that affect the object,identification of likely methods for creating new technologies and opportunities based methods.
As a result of the above two works, new information is created. The process of changing this information into a form suitable for use in industries is commonly referred to as development. It is focused on the creation of new equipment, materials, technologies or the modernization of existing ones. The ultimate goal of development is the preparation of materials for applied research.
Applied research aims to discover methods of applying the laws of nature to improve the means and methods of human work. Their main goal is to find possible ways to use the scientific knowledge acquired as a result of basic research work in human practice.
Organization of the event
A scientific direction is understood as a science or a complex of sciences in which this research is carried out. There are technical, biological, social, physical-technical, historical and other areas and directions. Structurally, the organization of scientific research includes 5 main stages:
- the occurrence of difficulties and problems;
- proposing an initial conjecture and hypothesis;
- conducting theoretical research;
- testing in practice - conducting an experiment;
- formulation of conclusions and recommendations.
Thus, the process of organizing scientific research is the study of a phenomenon usingscientific methods and actions, analysis of the impact on it of various causes, as well as the interaction of various phenomena in order to benefit science and practice with maximum effect.
One of the important features of scientific knowledge is the organization of scientific research and the introduction of specific research methods. A method is a unity of techniques and methods of work, established rules. The study of methods of cognition and practical work is the task of a special discipline - research methodology. There are two levels of knowledge in the methodology of scientific research:
- empirical (observation and experience, grouping, systematization and description of experimental results);
- theoretical (selection of regular consequences from them, comparison of different hypotheses and theories).
The levels of organization of scientific and practical research differ in a number of characteristics:
- on the subject (empirical research is concentrated on phenomena, theoretical research on fact);
- by means and tools of knowledge;
- by research methods;
- by the nature of acquired knowledge.
At the same time, both types of research work are organically interconnected in a single structure.
Based on the universality of use, the following groups of organization of scientific research and their methods are distinguished:
- general scientific methods used in virtually all sciences;
- personal or special methods appropriate for some areaspractices;
- methods, which are techniques that have been developed to solve a specific difficulty and problem.
General scientific methods are used in theoretical and empirical works. They include analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, analogy and modeling, logical and historical methods, abstraction and specification, systems analysis, formalization, theory building, etc.
Analysis is a method of organizing scientific research, which consists in studying an object by means of its intellectual or practical division into its constituent elements (parts of the object, its properties, characteristics, relationships).
Synthesis is a way of studying an object as a whole, in the unity and connection of its parts.
Induction is a method of organizing scientific research, in which a general conclusion about the features of a set of elements is made on the basis of a study of these features in some of the elements of the set.
Deduction is a way of logical thinking from the general to the particular, in other words, the state of the object as a whole is examined first, and then its constituent parts.
Analogy (comparison) is a method in which, based on the similarity of objects in some respects, a conclusion is made about their similarity in other characteristics.
Modeling is the study of an object by creating and analyzing its copy.
The fundamental place in the research is occupied by logical and historical methods.
The historical version allows you to study the emergence, formation and development of actions and events in chronological order in order to identifyinternal and external connections, patterns and disagreements.
Abstraction is a way of abstracting from a number of parameters and relationships of the phenomenon under study that are not significant for this study, while highlighting the main parameters and relationships.
Concretization is a method of analyzing objects in all their universality, in the qualitative diversity of real existence.
System analysis is the study of an object as a set of parts that form a common system.
Formalization is a way of studying objects by representing their parts in the form of special symbols, for example, representing industrial costs according to a formula in which cost items are reflected using symbols.
In addition, other methods of scientific research have recently emerged, such as generalization (formation of general parameters and characteristics of objects), systematization (division of all studied objects into certain groups in accordance with a certain attribute), statistical methods (determination of average, which characterize the entire set of studied objects).
Concrete-scientific (private) research methods are special methods of specific sciences, for example, economics. These methods are created depending on the objective function. They are characterized by penetration into similar branches of science (for example, methods of financial study that have been developed on the basis of accounting and statistics) that go beyond the boundaries of the field of knowledge where they wereformed.
The main empirical methods include: observation, experience, description (fixing information about objects with a natural or artificial option); measurement (comparison of objects by any properties or characteristics). Within the framework of the empirical level of scientific knowledge, methods such as observation and experience are most often used.
Observation is a purposeful study of phenomena and actions without specific intervention in their development, taking into account the objectives of scientific research. Usually, observation is used in situations where intervention in the process under study is not necessary or unrealistic. An experiment is a method of research in which phenomena are examined under controlled conditions. It is usually carried out on the basis of a theory or hypothesis, which determines the formulation of the problem and the interpretation of the results.
The main task of the experiment is to test the theoretical positions (proof of the working hypothesis), as well as a more extensive and in-depth study of the topic. Depending on the specificity of behavior, several types of experiment are distinguished:
- qualitative (determining the presence or absence of phenomena that were proposed by the hypothesis);
- measuring (quantitative) - determination of the numerical characteristics of the process, phenomenon;
- a socio-economic experiment is being conducted to optimize management.
The principles of organization of scientific researchare:
- The orderliness of the social nature of the world. Almost all social phenomena are in a systemic relationship with each other, and some events follow a string in an ordered sequence that can be traced, described and even predicted.
- All actions have a specific reason in accordance with the principle of determinism.
- An economy of reasoning that is essential for summarizing data on higher levels of human behavior. It allows scientists to extrapolate certain data from the specific to the more general.
- Behavior and thinking are based on a basic reality that can be explored through scientific research.
For example, the basis of psychic research is the postulate stating that man by nature is an extremely difficult system, but still a system that can be understood and explained with the help of scientific tests and the optimal study of the studies carried out. For research to be successful, it must be correctly organized, planned and carried out in a certain sequence.
Basics of Management
The regulatory framework for regulating relations between the subjects of scientific and scientific and technical work, government agencies and users of scientific and scientific and technical products is created by the Federal Law of August 23, 1996 "On Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy"
According to this law, the state science and technology management policyorganization of scientific research is carried out on the basis of the following basic principles:
- recognition of science as a socially important industry that determines the level of development of the country's productive forces;
- Guaranteeing the essential development of basic research;
- integration of scientific, technical and educational work based on various forms of participation of employees, graduate students and students of higher educational institutions in scientific and engineering developments by creating educational and scientific complexes based on universities, academies of sciences that have state status;
- supporting competition and commercial work in science and technology;
- development of scientific, technical and innovative work by creating a system of municipal research centers and other structures;
- concentration of resources in the most important areas of science and technology;
- stimulating scientific, technical and innovative work through a system of financial and other benefits.
Important areas of state policy in the field of science and technology development are:
- development of basic science, important applied research and development;
- improving government regulation in the development of science and technology;
- formation of the state innovation system;
- increasing the productivity of using the results of scientific and technical work;
- preservation and development of the personnel potential of the scientific and technical complex;
- development of international scientific and technical cooperation.
In Russiascientific work is managed on the basis of a combination of the principles of state regulation and self-government.
Organization and planning of scientific research is essential to create their rational structure.
Scientific organizations and educational institutions develop work plans for the year based on target programs, long-term scientific and technical plans, business contracts.
For example, when planning research work in the field of criminal law, criminal procedure, forensic nature, research institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, the Prosecutor General's Office of Russia, other departments, committees and services should take into account the measures described in the national targeted crime program.
What are the difficulties and challenges?
The problem of organizing scientific research is a controversial state of affairs that needs to be resolved. The problem is often identified with a question that is of interest to the researcher. This is the result of a study of practice and scientific literature, identifying disagreements. The problem appears when the old knowledge becomes missing, and the new knowledge has not yet received a developed form.
The correct formulation of the problem is the basis for organizing scientific research. In order to correctly find the difficulty and problem, one must realize what has already been created in the research topic, what is poorly developed, and what no one has considered in principle.This can only happen on the basis of a study of the available literature. If it is possible to identify what theoretical provisions and practical advice have already been developed in the field of knowledge and related sciences, then it will be possible to find a research problem.
When drawing up scientific results, the developer must correctly and clearly construct a solution to the scientific problem that he has set for his research. The originality of the research is determined by the novelty of the problem statement. The talent of a researcher is manifested in the ability to see and formulate new problems.
Features of pedagogical research
Pedagogical research is a specially organized process that is aimed at identifying and eliminating issues in the field of personality formation and development within the framework of the educational process. Components of the organization of scientific and pedagogical research:
- Scientific problem: reflects the essence of disagreements between theories and practice of pedagogy. Relevance describes the need and significance of research, problems.
- The research goal is a summary of the intended outcome that the researcher is aiming for.
- The object of study will be what is to be studied.
- The subject of study is one of the sides of the object of study.
- Research objectives are aimed at achieving the goal. They are typical steps and stages of research.
- Hypothesis - an assumption about what specific research problem will be solved by othersin words, what impact it will have on the researcher and what changes he wants to see.
- Theoretical and practical significance consists in summarizing the available information on the research problem, developing and proposing recommendations.
- Methods of organizing scientific and pedagogical research are methods and means of research that contribute to the actual obtaining of the necessary information and materials.
Today, methods of pedagogical research are represented by different means and options, each of which has its own characteristics.
Research is the process of exploring, testing, conceptualizing, and testing a theory associated with the acquisition of scientific knowledge.
This concept, as a process, contains three main elements:
- expedient human activity, in other words, practically scientific work itself;
- subject of scientific work;
- means of scientific work.
Research, depending on their purpose, the degree of connection with nature, the depth and nature of scientific work, is divided into several main types: fundamental, applied, development.