3rd shock army: composition, commanders, combat path

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3rd shock army: composition, commanders, combat path
3rd shock army: composition, commanders, combat path
Anonim

November 7, 1941, in addition to the military parade in Moscow, parades of military reserves were also held in Voronezh and Kuibyshev. The parade in Kuibyshev was commanded by Lieutenant General Purkaev. On December 25, 1941, he took command of the 3rd Shock Army.

Purkaev Maxim

The name itself eloquently said that the rank and file and command staff will have to fight on the most difficult sectors of the front. At the cutting edge of the attack. On the direction of the main blow.

War of the 20th century

Wars of the 16th-19th centuries are "wars of one battle". The army that defeated the enemy in a decisive battle became the winner.

The First World War showed that the progress of armaments changed the course of the war. The old tactic has become ineffective.

Victory parade

For the USSR, the need to develop new operational techniques was extremely relevant. The young state did not doubt the inevitability of war with the imperialist encirclement.

Conceptdeep break

The principles of modern warfare were developed by a team of military theorists headed by V.K. Triandafillov with the support of M.N. Tukhachevsky.

Marshal Tukhachevsky

The armies of the 20th century are well-armed and combat-ready. To win, it is necessary to conduct a series of offensive operations to break through the front line in a limited area, with a deep raid behind enemy lines to the entire depth of defense. Battles must be repeated after each regrouping of enemy forces.

Offensive tactics should be developed in the context of a strategic operation or the entire war. Instead of positional battles on the line of contact, highly maneuverable combat operations were proposed.

The concept was adopted and recommended for mandatory use in the interim Field Manual of 1936. Before the start of repressions against the generals of the Red Army. Good luck.

For the first time, G. Zhukov used tactics in the battles of 1939 at Khalkhin Gol. The concept has been proven effective.

Shock armies

Vistula-Oder operation

"Deep breakthroughs" became part of the Soviet military doctrine and were successfully used on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. The Battle of Stalingrad, "Bagration" and the Vistula-Oder operation - Triandafillov's tactics ensured victory.

Shock armies were created to carry out breakthroughs. There were five of them, four were formed on the eve of large-scale offensive operations in the winter of 1941/42. Fifth shock formed in December 1942

Parts of the shock armies stormed the defensivestructures on the front line, eliminated strongholds and overcame minefields with the support of artillery. Enemy resistance was crushed by superior firepower and aggressive infantry tactics. They held a foothold that allowed armored formations to raid the entire depth of the defense in depth, preventing the encirclement of tank divisions.

parade russia

Composition and command

The concept implied that the shock armies would have armored units. But in 1941-1942. there were no armored vehicles. Generally. The tanks that were in service with the troops were destroyed in the first months of the fighting. Factories are hastily evacuated to the east. As part of the shock armies - infantry and artillery. And this is a great power.

There were four rifle corps in the 3rd shock army.

With the start of mass production of military equipment, it was decided to form separate tank and air units for greater mobility and efficiency.

The first commander of the 3rd shock army Purkaev M.A. in August 1942 was appointed commander of the Kalinin Front. Until November 1943, the squad fought under the command of Lieutenant General Galitsky K.N. In November 1943, the army was accepted by Colonel General Chibisov N.E.

In August 1944, Lieutenant General Gerasimov M. N. was appointed commander of the 3rd shock, in October he was replaced by Major General Simonyak N. P.

The army ended the war under the command of Colonel General Kuznetsov V.I.

Kholmsko-Toropetsk operation

Combat path 3rdshock army began in 1942. Together with the 4th troops, they were to surround and destroy the Rzhev-Vyazma grouping of the Wehrmacht.

The Kholmsko-Toropetsk operation began on January 9th. Within a month, overcoming the resistance of the enemy, the army advanced. As a result, the front at the junction of the "North" and "Center" groups was broken through, the garrison in the city of Kholm and the Demyansk grouping of the 16th Army of the Nazis were surrounded. On February 6, the 3rd shock army was forced to go on the defensive. There were 200-300 fighters left in the rifle regiments, there was no one to attack.

The Nazis managed to unblock the Demyansk Cauldron only on April 21, 1942

Operation Bagration

Velikolukskaya operation

The next major operation of the army was Velikolukskaya. The operation was carried out by the forces of the 3rd shock army with the support of the 3rd air army.

November 24, 1942 the troops went on the attack. By the evening of November 28, the encirclement ring around the city was closed. Repeated attempts by the Nazis to break through the blockade were unsuccessful. Positional battles continued until December 13, 1942. Opponents constantly brought fresh divisions into battle.

The 3rd shock army went on the assault on Velikiye Luki on December 13th. Stubborn fighting on the streets of the city lasted more than a month. The city was taken on the morning of January 16, 1943

In 1943-1944. the army took part in offensive and defensive battles of the Kalinin and B altic fronts in the Nevelsk, Starorussky, Rzhev, and Riga directions. For more than two months, it blocked the large grouping of the army "North" on the Courland Peninsula. Late November 1944was withdrawn to the reserve of the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander.

Vistula-Oder operation

In December 1944, the Wehrmacht intelligence agency published an alarming assessment of Soviet intentions and capabilities. In January 1945, the same department reported to Hitler that the offensive of the Soviet troops against the Center group would be directed to the lower Vistula region, and then to Berlin. Even the start date of the offensive by German intelligence was known: the offensive would begin in mid-January.

Operation Bagration

So it was planned by the Stavka, but the allies on the Western Front got bogged down in the Ardennes. They asked Stalin to divert the troops of the Reich on the Eastern Front. On January 6, 1945, the Vistula-Oder operation began.

Zhukov put the 3rd shock in the second echelon. To build up efforts in the direction of the main blow.

Berlin, 1945

Zhukov's order to march was received by the army on January 17th. Move in marching columns, ready to engage in battle at any moment.

The army followed the advancing troops without taking part in the battles. By the beginning of February, we reached the old German-Polish border.

We covered about 500 km in less than three weeks. Berlin was less than 100 km away. But about six combat-ready divisions of the Vistula group remained in Pomerania. The order to destroy it was received by the 3rd shock.

The further deep into Germany the troops advanced, the more fierce the resistance of the doomed soldiers of the Wehrmacht became. But it was already impossible to stop the winners.

Bannerover the Reichstag

150 Rifle Division of the 3rd Shock Army stormed the reystag. The battle in the building itself lasted a day: from the night of 30 to the evening of May 1. The Reichstag was on fire. The fight continued. By evening, at one of the entrances, the Nazis threw out a white flag. On the night of May 2, the Reichstag capitulated.

The banner of Victory over the Reichstag was hoisted by soldiers of the 150th Infantry Division. After the war - the 3rd Combined Arms Red Banner Army.

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