Intellectual resources, intellectual capital, human capital - categories that are among the most versatile and most mobile. They are widely used in sociological and economic research. Often these terms are considered as identical. However, there are certain differences between them. In our article, we will pay special attention to the first of the presented categories. Let's consider the structure of intellectual resources, their classification, the issue of formation and current management systems.
Such funds are gradually becoming a fundamental component of the well-being of enterprises. Intellectual and material resources together determine the competitiveness of commercial structures and act as the main factor in their development. Due to the increase in the scientific and technical production level, the growing need for improvementtechnologies and entry into a post-industrial society, there was a need for the closest possible attention to the intellectual component of the enterprise, along with fixed and working capital.
Today, the intellectual resource is becoming one of the key competitive advantages of companies. It is a source of increased productivity. Since the middle of the last century, intellectual property has been considered by economists as a factor of production. Karl Marx also pointed out the dependence of the development of society in economic terms on the general scientific and technological level or the use of this science in relation to production.
Classification by form of manifestation
Currently, it is customary to allocate a sufficient number of types of intellectual resources. It should be noted that all of them are heterogeneous in nature and include different elements. Relevant classification in accordance with various criteria. According to the form of manifestation, it is customary to distinguish the following varieties of the category:
- reified, that is, materialized;
- non-materialized, that is, non-materialized.
An example of the first type of intellectual resources of an organization are printed publications of various, in particular, scientific, studies (these can be monographs, books, reports, reports, etc.). An example of the second variety is software products, databases, and so on.
In accordance with such a criterion as the subject of belonging, it is customary to distinguish the following types of information and intellectual resources:
- Individual, in other words, personal.
- Corporate, that is, collective.
- Nationwide, which make up the national we alth.
- Global, which refer to the global economy in a general sense.
Next, it is advisable to study the classification according to the nature of the destination. So, resources can have a theoretical, scientific, practical, applied purpose, as well as an ordinary (in other words, routine), for example, for housekeeping. In addition, we are talking about entertaining and leisure and moral and ethical purpose. Depending on the specific area of use, a classification takes place, including political, socio-economic, environmental and other types.
Information and intellectual resources are also classified according to the method of formation. They can be created on the basis of existing ones or generated independently in the "heads" of specialists in the relevant field, provided that there is extremely little explicit knowledge (in other words, it is called codified).
In accordance with the form of application, intellectual resources are divided into alienable and inalienable. The first group involves the transfer for use to other entities that are consumers, in a tangible form (license, patent) for those orother conditions or in an oral, that is, intangible form, in other words, in the form of databases, symbols and signs. Resources of the second type usually exist in an intangible, intangible form. That is why they cannot be separated from the carrier, who is the individual or the collective. Even if they are relevant in a materialized form (development of a scientific and technical plan, manuscripts), their alienation in future periods requires the implementation of special rules.
To fully manage intellectual resources, it is important to know their structure. According to their content, they are a multi-layered category. In other words, this is an integrated formation, which includes the following components:
- Scientific knowledge that is created in universities, government-type research institutes, and private corporate research and development.
- Technological (technical) knowledge, the main suppliers of which are the structures of the business sector, which conduct their own development and research, institutions of the business field and the state. scientific universities, other institutions, as well as research activity in new business formations that arise both in the development of new business and as a by-product of research carried out in existing organizations and associations.
- Innovation by business firms and start-ups.
Intellectual capital as an intellectual resource of Russia. It is worth noting that it is created as a result of the work of universities related to the training of personnel and specialists of the highest category, in the process of research in the business and public sectors, as well as in other institutions of higher professionalism. education, differing in its specificity
Competences (qualifications) obtained by studying at universities, in the corporate sector, as well as in courses of a professional nature. This also includes competencies that are the result of the professional experience of employees in all areas of the economy, which includes the research field
Information and communication technologies (ICT) as resources of the country's intellectual potential, which are created in the corporate sector and are distributed as a result of their use, as well as the activities of network companies
Formation and use of resources in practice
Today, modern information tools are considered the most important initial component not only of the creation of human intellectual resources, but also a condition for the economic development of society in a general sense. An information resource should be understood primarily as information that was accumulated, collected, analyzed, updated to some extent, in other words, transformed in order to gain knowledge. This information, as well as the knowledge obtained on its basis, became materialized in the form of various databases, algorithms, documents, works of science, literature, art, programs, and so on.next.
The use of information plan tools is associated with a qualitative and quantitative assessment, as well as their qualifications. These resources are divided into groups according to the specified law on the basis of ownership. It is customary to allocate media to the dependent, organization, region, and country.
Characteristics of information resources
As it turned out, in the totality of the intellectual resources of the enterprise, a special place is occupied by information tools. They are based on information that acquires certain properties inherent in it, retains its own characteristics as tools of a specific format. Quality data include:
- Unlike other varieties, information, as a rule, are not alienated directly from the manufacturer. So, their production and subsequent consumption are interconnected in a functional way.
- When transferring and using these funds by subjects and systems, they are not reduced, not destroyed. Moreover, for a subject that accepts and is a consumer, their volumes (in other words, the amount of information) and the knowledge obtained on their basis, in any case, increase. This alignment is not typical for material objects.
- In this case, the assessment of their value should be understood as an ambiguous process. It depends on many factors. This includes the stage of the life cycle of these funds, the material costs and time required for their production and subsequent distribution, the natureusing them as resources.
- As an object of sale, such funds can be used repeatedly, without losing their value in terms of consumption and without re-production. At the same time, their producers, one way or another, retain their own economic status, that is, in relation to resources, they remain owners. It is for this reason that the rights of the consumer and the producer of information media are usually determined by regulations.
- They can be reused and, under appropriate conditions, stored for an unlimited period of time.
- They, being the object of the contract of sale, unlike other varieties, do not have a material component. Thus, it is the actual rights associated with their use that are realized on the market. Part of these resources acts as the property of the world community.
- Literary works, fundamental discoveries, laws cannot be mechanically transferred to their production and subsequent application.
- Information media have the property of aging, that is, the loss of their own value. For this reason, they must be constantly updated. This has a significant impact on their use value and the value of the final products that are created on their basis.
Intellectual resource management systems
Increased competition in almost all business sectors, driven by technological change and the globalization of trade, is forcing Russian firms to pay close attention to innovation,obtaining, extracting and further development of advantages in terms of competition through the most effective management of intellectual capital and knowledge.
It is advisable to consider the management of intellectual resources on a specific example. Let's take one of the largest financial corporations on the territory of the Russian Federation called Sistema. The structure has ten key business areas:
- Telecommunications (in other words, cellular and fixed communications). It is advisable to include voice services, data transmission, as well as access to the Internet; pay TV and other services to subscribers, that is, operators, individuals, legal entities.
- Innovative solutions in the field of information technology, telecommunications and microelectronics in Russia, in the CIS countries, with a growing presence in Eastern and Central Europe, Africa and the Middle East (more than 3500 customers).
- Real estate: development (development, development); management of construction and projects, real estate (including the operation of buildings and structures).
- Banking and financial business: retail, investment, corporate.
- Sale of goods for children (retail and wholesale).
- Massmedia: advertising and media content; pay TV, which includes network management; content management; motion picture production.
- Radio engineering, which includes ground and aerospace systems related to control; power engineering.
- Tourism: tour operating;retail sales of tourist products; hotel business; transport services.
- Production of equipment for the creation of innovative medical products and pharmaceuticals; production of dosage forms, medicinal raw materials and innovative chemical substances.
- Medicine: a network of medical clinics of various profiles; ambulance service.
One of the most important conditions for the investment attractiveness of the structure is a high degree of corporate governance. The creation of a unified system of control and management of intellectual resources, which is fully integrated into the structure of a corporation or enterprise, is considered as another tool to increase efficiency in business development.
The task of the control system
The task of such a management system (SUIR) is, first of all, to control the processes of transformation of intellectual capital into real profit in the case of effective creation of value through the use of appropriate means to increase:
- benefit from industrial innovation, in particular through “hidden” knowledge;
- income generated from intellectual resources not used by the structure in current production processes;
- benefits from the full use of "external" knowledge (here, compliance with the law in force in the country is extremely important).
So, we have considered the types, structure, formation and management system of intellectual resources. It is worth noting that this system contains several components. Among them are formalized mechanisms (in other words, business processes) necessary for the development and subsequent decision-making; a single information space related to the dissemination of knowledge and its management; an environment that is considered conducive to the emergence and further growth of innovation. In any case, SUIR is subject to a single corporate ideology.
The management system, taking into account the real possibilities of a market-type economy, can create special conditions for acquiring knowledge, using their purchase, rental, development methods, as well as modern corporate culture. The function associated with knowledge management includes market methods depending on the specifics and characteristics of a particular stage of the organization, the acquisition and further assimilation of new knowledge. It is worth noting that at each stage you need to use modern information technologies, study the Internet, intellectual analysis tools, all kinds of networks, document management systems, extranets, decision support systems, artificial intelligence, as well as teamwork software.
Different components can prevail in IRMS, ranging from organizational arrangements (i.e. internal standards or regulations) that ensure the transfer and absolute preservation of knowledge within the structure, andending with advanced information systems (corporate repositories and knowledge portals). At the same time, this can be corporate (intracompany) or functioning in accordance with the interests of the modern market. In the latter situation, knowledge will be applied by sellers, buyers, as well as intermediary agents endowed with special functions.