World culture, acting as a phenomenon of social life, is of interest to many sciences. This phenomenon is studied by sociology and aesthetics, archeology, ethnography and others. Next, let's figure out what the world culture is.
We should start with the definition of "culture". The term is very ambiguous. In special and artistic publications, you can find quite a lot of interpretations of this concept. In everyday life, culture is understood as the level of upbringing and education of a person. In the aesthetic sense, this phenomenon is directly related to numerous works of folk art and professional art. In public life, the definitions of speech, political, mental, industrial culture are also applicable.
Previously, the level of culture corresponded to the achievements of crafts and sciences, and the goal was to make people happy. The history of world culture goes back to the very depths of centuries. The concept was opposed to the savagery of the people and its barbaric state. After a while, there appearedpessimistic definition. Rousseau, in particular, was his adherent. He believed that world culture as a whole is a source of evil and injustice in society. According to Rousseau, she was the destroyer of morality and did not make people happy and rich. In addition, he believed that human vices are the result of cultural achievements. Rousseau proposed to live in harmony with nature, to educate a person in her bosom. In classical German philosophy, world culture was perceived as a sphere of people's spiritual freedom. Herder put forward the idea that this phenomenon represents the progress of the development of the faculties of the mind.
In the 19th century, the concept of "world culture" began to be used as a characteristic of a person's creative potential and the complex of results of his activity. Marxism emphasized the conditionality of culture in a certain way of production. It was believed that it always had a specific character: bourgeois, primitive, etc. Marxism explored various manifestations: political, labor and other cultures.
The philosopher sought to bring the tradition of criticism of the phenomenon to the limit. He considered culture only as a means of enslaving and suppressing a person with the help of legal and other norms, prohibitions, and prescriptions. Nevertheless, the philosopher believed that it was necessary. He explained this by the fact that man himself is an anti-cultural, power-hungry and natural being.
He denied the view that the history of world culture is combined with progress. According to Spengler, it breaks up into several unique and independent organisms. These elements are not interconnected and naturally go through several successive stages: emergence, flourishing and dying. Spengler believed that there is no single world culture. The philosopher identified eight local cultures: Russian-Siberian, Mayan, Western European, Byzantine-Arabic, Greco-Roman, Chinese, Indian, Egyptian. They were seen as existing independently and on their own.
World culture is a diverse phenomenon. It was formed in different conditions. The modern concept of the phenomenon is very diverse, since it includes the foundations of world cultures. The development of each nation is unique. The culture of this or that nation reflects its fate and historical path, its position in society. However, despite such diversity, this concept is one. The capitalist market has made a great contribution to world culture. Over the course of several centuries, it destroyed the national barriers that developed in the Middle Ages, turning the planet into a "one house" for mankind. Of particular importance for world culture was the discovery of America by Columbus. This event actively contributed to the elimination of the isolation of peoples and countries. Until that moment, the interaction of cultures was a more local process.
Main development trends
In the 20th century, there was a sharp acceleration in the rapprochementnational and regional cultures. To date, there are two trends in the development of this complex. The first of these should be considered the desire for originality and originality, the preservation of "face". This is most evident in folklore, literature, and language. The second trend is the interpenetration and interaction of different cultures. This becomes possible due to the use of effective means of communication and communication, active trade and economic exchange, as well as the presence of common management structures that control these processes. For example, UNESCO operates under the UN, an organization responsible for resolving issues of science, education, and culture. As a result, the development process takes on a holistic form. On the basis of cultural synthesis, a planetary single civilization is formed, which has a global world culture. At the same time, man is its creator. Just like culture contributes to the development of people. In it, people draw on the experience and knowledge of their predecessors.
World Religious Cultures
This phenomenon involves many systems. They were formed on national soil, connected with ancient beliefs and folk traditions, language. Certain beliefs were previously localized in certain countries. The foundations of the world's religious cultures are closely connected with the national and ethnic characteristics of peoples.
This religion originated with the ancient Jews. At the beginning of the second millennium, this people settled in Palestine. Judaism is one of the few religions that has survived topresent in virtually unchanged form. This belief marks the transition to monotheism from polytheism.
This form of religion is considered one of the most common. It originated in the first millennium AD. It was the result of a rivalry between Jainism, Buddhism (young religions) and Brahmanism.
Beliefs in Ancient China
The most common religions in the old days were Confucianism and Taoism. The first is still a matter of controversy. Despite the fact that there are quite a few signs that allow us to consider Confucianism a religion, many do not recognize it as such. Its peculiarity is the absence of a caste of priests and the performance of rites by government officials. Taoism is considered a traditional religious form. It provided for the presence of a hierarchical layer of priests. The basis of religion was magic spells and actions. Taoism is a higher level of development of consciousness. In this case, religion has acquired a supranational character. Within the framework of this form of belief, representatives of different languages and peoples are mixed. They can be both geographically and culturally quite far apart.
This world's oldest religious culture arose in the 5th century. BC e. The number of believers is several hundred million. According to ancient records, the founder is the prince of India, Siddhartha Gautama. He received the name Buddha. The basis of this religion ismoral doctrine by which a person can become perfect. Initially, the commandments in Buddhism assume a negative form and have a prohibitive character: do not take someone else's, do not kill, and so on. For those who aspire to become perfect, these precepts become absolute truths.
This religion is considered the most widespread today. There are more than a billion believers. The Bible is based on the Old and New Testaments. The most important religious rites are communion and baptism. The latter is considered a symbol of the removal of original sin from a person.
This religion is practiced by Arabic-speaking peoples, the majority of Asians and the population of North Africa. The main book of Islam is the Quran. It is a collection of recordings of the teachings and sayings of the founder of the religion, Muhammad.
Religion is considered one of the main forms of the moral system. Inside it, true commandments are formed, which a person needs to follow throughout his life. At the same time, religion is a social factor that regulates the interaction between people. This is especially important for those societies whose members perceive their freedom as permissiveness.