Princess Olga was the first ruler in the history of Russia to convert to Christianity. This wise and courageous woman had to take the reins of power after her husband, Prince Igor, was killed, and her son Svyatoslav was too small to rule. The years of government, during which many events took place, including the tax reform of Princess Olga, fell on the period from 945 to 962.
The princess was famous not only for her beauty and determination, but also for her intelligence and wisdom. Having brutally cracked down on her husband's killers, she began to deal with political issues, manage combatants, complainers, as well as receive ambassadors and perform other duties of the ruler.
The husband of Princess Olga, Prince Igor, was killed by the Drevlyans after he demanded a second tax from one house. Prince Mal, who ruled the Drevlyans, wanted to capture Kievan Rus by marrying Princess Olga. However, the cunning plan of the wise ruler is oneswept away all his intentions.
The princess managed to kill the Drevlyansky ambassadors three times, and then, inspired by the victory, she gathered an army and went to the enemy. However, she failed to immediately besiege the city of Korosten. Then Princess Olga ordered from each house to bring her a tax in the form of three doves and three sparrows. Hooking a tinder to each bird and setting it on fire, she released the birds, who, feeling free, flew to their native nest. The burning birds helped burn the wooden houses and the fortress was taken.
Olga's next move is tax reform. She wanted to streamline the tribute system, because of which the husband of the princess died, and instead of "polyudya" she introduced "lessons", that is, a fixed tax, which had to be paid from a divided area of \u200b\u200bthe land.
The reform of the princess included a certain amount of tribute and a clear payment period. Unlike "polyudya", this type of tax was a more civilized type of taxation.
Olga's tax reform was carried out once a year, and the tribute itself consisted of food, furs and handicrafts.
But that was only the beginning. The princess introduced such a thing as churchyards. These innovations were small centers subject to princely power. Now every center of government was obliged to accept tribute. Later, trade was carried out on the churchyards.
It turns out that Princess Olga, who has been conducting tax reform for more than a year, prudently created territorial divisions that were under the authority of the localprince. Thus, management was under her control, since the prince could always repulse anyone dissatisfied with the policy of the ruler.
Two centuries later, the graveyards turned into an administrative district.
What were polyudya? Before the reign of the wise Olga, the Grand Dukes collected tribute through an annual detour, which took place in winter. In fact, it was a robbery, since those in power could collect tax twice from the same yard, which caused discontent and indignation of payers.
Olga's tax reform made it possible for people who brought tribute to receive a special princely seal. This meant that they could no longer be taxed again. This reform helped the wise princess to identify objectionable subordinates. Most of the local princes lost their power, as they did not fulfill the conditions of the ruler, and their lands lost their former independence. And although Olga's tax reform did not receive wide publicity, it was of great importance for Ancient Russia.
Tax collectors or chiunes
Princess Olga appointed tax collectors or tiuns, who were called “cattlemen” for a long time, as they took tribute in kind, as heads of the graveyards. Gradually, Olga's tax reform improved from year to year. As a result, commodity-money relations developed.
Instead of cattle, tribute has already been taken in a special form resembling metal money.
Result of Princess Olga's reign
In addition to the fact that Princess Olga, as the ruler, was the first to acceptChristianity and was elevated to the rank of saints, with her reforms she made life easier for the people, concentrated power in Kyiv, divided the state into separate administrative centers, introduced order in taxation. Now the tax had a fixed amount, everyone knew about the terms of payment, and it was strictly forbidden to collect tribute from those persons who had fulfilled their duty.
Everyone knows that the grandson of Princess Olga became the first prince to baptize all the people. Years later, people in epics and legends will sing not only the way of life of Princess Olga, but also her reforms, which contribute to the strengthening of Kievan Rus.