History of chemistry briefly: description, origin and development. Brief outline of the history of the development of chemistry

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History of chemistry briefly: description, origin and development. Brief outline of the history of the development of chemistry
History of chemistry briefly: description, origin and development. Brief outline of the history of the development of chemistry

The origin of the science of substances can be attributed to the era of antiquity. The ancient Greeks knew seven metals and several other alloys. Gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron and mercury were the substances that were known at that time. The history of chemistry began with practical knowledge. Their theoretical understanding was first undertaken by various scientists and philosophers - Aristotle, Plato and Empedocles. The first of them believed that each of these substances can be converted into another. He explained this by the existence of the first matter, which served as the beginning of all beginnings.

Ancient philosophy

It was also widely believed that every substance in the world is based on a combination of four elements - water, fire, earth and air. It is these forces of nature that are responsible for the transmutation of metals. At the same time, in the 5th c. BC e. the theory of atomism appeared, the founders of which were Leucippus and his student Democritus. This doctrine claimed that all objects are made up of tiny particles. They are called atoms. And although this theory did not find scientific confirmation in antiquity, this is precisely whatthe doctrine has become a help to modern chemistry in modern times.

history of chemistry

Egyptian alchemy

Approximately in the II century BC. e. Egyptian Alexandria became the new center of science. This is where alchemy originated. This discipline originated as a synthesis of the theoretical ideas of Plato and the practical knowledge of the Hellenes. The history of chemistry of this period is characterized by an increased interest in metals. For them, the classical designation was invented in the form of the then known planets and celestial bodies. For example, silver was depicted as the Moon, and iron as Mars. Since science at that time was inseparable from religion, alchemy, like any other scientific discipline, had its own patron god (Thoth).

One of the most significant researchers of that time was Bolos of Mendes, who wrote the treatise "Physics and Mysticism". In it, he described metals and precious stones (their properties and value). Another alchemist Zosim Panopolit in his works explored artificial ways to obtain gold. In general, the history of the emergence of chemistry began with the search for this noble metal. Alchemists tried to obtain gold through experimentation or magic.

Egyptian alchemists studied not only the metals themselves, but also the ores from which they were mined. This is how amalgam was discovered. This is a type of alloy of metals with mercury, which has taken a special place in the worldview of alchemists. Some considered it a primordial substance. The discovery of a method for refining gold using lead and s altpeter can be attributed to the same period.

Arab discoveries

If history in the Hellenistic countrieschemistry began, it continued several centuries later during the Arab golden age, when the scientists of the young Islamic religion were at the forefront of human science. These researchers discovered many new substances, such as antimony or phosphorus. Most of the unique knowledge was applied in medicine and pharmacy to develop medicines and potions. It is impossible to outline the history of the development of chemistry without mentioning the philosopher's stone - a mythical substance that allows you to turn any substance into gold.

About 815, the Arab alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan formulated the mercury-sulphur theory. She explained the origin of metals in a new way. These principles have become fundamental for alchemy not only of the Arab, but also of the European school.

European alchemists of the Middle Ages

Thanks to the Crusades and greater contact between East and West, Christian scientists are finally aware of the Muslim discoveries. Since the 13th century, it was the Europeans who took a confident leadership position in the study of substances. The history of medieval chemistry owes much to Roger Bacon, Albert the Great, Raymond Lull, etc.

Unlike Arabic science, European studies were imbued with the spirit of Christian mythology and religion. Monasteries became the main centers for the study of substances. One of the first major achievements of the monks was the discovery of ammonia. It was received by the famous theologian Bonaventure. The discoveries of the alchemists had little effect on society until Roger Bacon described gunpowder in 1249. Over time, this substance has revolutionized the battlefield and the ammunition of armies.

BIn the 16th century, alchemy received a boost as a medical discipline. The most famous are the works of Par altses, who discovered many medicines.

history of chemistry briefly

New time

The Reformation and the advent of the New Age could not but affect chemistry. It increasingly got rid of religious overtones, becoming an empirical and experimental science. The pioneer of this direction was Robert Boyle, who set a specific goal for chemistry - to find as many chemical elements as possible, as well as to study their composition and properties.

In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier formulated the oxygen theory of combustion. It became the foundation for the creation of a new scientific nomenclature. The history of chemistry, briefly described in his textbook "Elementary Chemistry Course", made a breakthrough. Lavoisier compiled a new table of the simplest elements, based on the law of conservation of mass. Ideas and concepts about the nature of substances have changed. Now chemistry has become an independent rational science, based only on experiments and real evidence.

history of the development of chemistry briefly

19th century

At the beginning of the 19th century, John D alton formulated the atomic theory of the structure of matter. In fact, he repeated and deepened the teachings of the ancient philosopher Democritus. A term such as atomic mass has appeared in everyday life.

With the discovery of new laws, the history of the development of chemistry received a new impetus. In short, at the turn of the XVIII and XIX centuries. mathematical and physical theories appeared that easily and logically explained the diversity of substances on the planet.D alton's discovery was confirmed when Swedish scientist Jens Jakob Berzelius linked atoms to the polarity of electricity. He also introduced into use the designations of substances familiar today in the form of Latin letters.

a brief outline of the history of the development of chemistry

Atomic mass

In 1860, chemists around the world at a congress in Krlsruhe recognized the fundamental atomic-molecular theory proposed by Stanislao Cannizzaro. With its help, the relative mass of oxygen was calculated. So the history of chemistry (it is very difficult to describe it briefly) has come a long way in a few decades.

Relative atomic mass made it possible to systematize all the elements. In the 19th century, many options were proposed on how to do this in the most convenient and practical way. But the Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev succeeded best of all. His periodic table of elements, proposed in 1869, became the foundation for modern chemistry.

sketch of the history of the development of chemistry

Modern chemistry

After several decades, the electron and the phenomenon of radioactivity were discovered. This confirmed long-standing assumptions about the divisibility of the atom. In addition, these discoveries gave impetus to the development of a borderline discipline between chemistry and physics. Models of the structure of the atom appeared.

A brief outline of the history of the development of chemistry cannot do without mentioning quantum mechanics. This discipline has influenced the concept of bonds within matter. New methods for analyzing scientific knowledge and theories have emerged. These were various variations of spectroscopy and the usex-ray.

history of chemistry

In recent years, the history of the development of chemistry, briefly described above, was marked by great results in conjunction with biology and medicine. New substances are actively used in modern medicines, etc. The structure of proteins, DNA and other important elements inside living organisms has been studied. A brief outline of the history of the development of chemistry can be completed with the discovery of more and more new substances in the periodic table, which are obtained experimentally.

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