The history and culture of any nation contains the foundation for the patriotic education of the younger generation. The problem will not lose its relevance for a long time. That's the way a person is. For the harmonious development of a personality, it is extremely important to understand one's place, purpose, mission within the time frame of one's biological existence. All these reflections will inevitably lead to discussions about patriotism, the Motherland and everything connected with it. However, without understanding the basic foundations, such reasoning can lead very far, so the issue of proper patriotic upbringing of children has been and is being given quite close attention. This sometimes led to kinks.
The concept of patriotism
A brief definition of this term means a certain moral principle that requires you to unconditionally love your Motherland, people and, if necessary, give your life, protecting the way of life that has been formed for centuries.This definition also implies one's own identification with other members of the people into which the individual was born. Pride in history and culture. In everyday life, patriotism has few manifestations. Its significance and role increase only in especially difficult times (wars, cataclysms). Rather, it is an impulse of special sacrifice, unity and the feeling of being a part of something big, great.
Forms of patriotism
One of the first forms of such a manifestation can be called politicism or polis patriotism. It has been known since ancient times on the example of ancient Greek cities and states at the same time. As an example, the policy is the state of Athens.
Imperial. Quite an interesting type of this phenomenon. Here, the person of the ruler plays a key unifying role for all living peoples.
Nationalism (ethnic). It is based on love and adoration of one's own ethnic group and culture, while representatives of other peoples are belittled or become hostile, even if they live in one state, being its citizens.
State patriotism - respect, support for the state system of power. Peoples can be different in ethnicity, religion. However, all citizens feel like full members of society, united through various institutions of state power.
Hurrah-patriotism. Hypertrophied feeling of love for the state.
As can be seen from all of the above, such an abundance of various forms requires that we treat the issue of patriotic educationchildren very seriously. Ambiguous interpretations and uncertainty are out of place here.
The glory of the Spartans thundered throughout Hellas. Being a state with one of the strongest armies in that era, Sparta paid great attention to the training and education of the younger generation. Children were taken away from their parents as soon as they were 6 years old.
Military-patriotic education of the Spartan youth was the business of the whole community. There were too many external threats, and the local population of helots, who were in the position of slaves, who were the property of the state, also needed to be controlled. By choosing this path of development, Sparta subordinated the lives of all its citizens to military needs.
At about the age of 14, teenagers in detachments (agels) began to take part in nightly punitive actions (cryptia) against the local population. The Spartans were afraid of the helots, believing that night raids on their villages would not only crush any desire for resistance, but also provide an excellent opportunity for the undergrowths to get their first combat experience. In fact, the agels are the first terrorist organization in the history of mankind.
Similar "patriotic education" tried to revive the Nazis in Germany. What came of it is known.
Importance of working with preschoolers
In modern society, the approach to raising patriotic feelings has changed. Children are the most curious creatures in the world. They are willing to make contact and are verysubtly feel the facets of what is happening around. They have a lot of questions that sometimes annoy adults. It is important to show patience in pedagogical activity. Love for the Fatherland is transformed from love for one's small homeland. Therefore, it is so important to instill and nurture interest in one's roots, native places.
Besides this, the patriotic education of preschool children also includes the formation of tolerance towards other peoples and their traditions. This is the foundation of value orientations for the subsequent harmonious development of the individual.
Strength and measure of vital activity of a citizen
It is understood that the presence of patriotism implies an active role of the individual in various socio-cultural relations of society. Such an individual is not an outside observer, but the most active participant in all the processes taking place in his state. This should happen naturally, arising from the beliefs and personal position on a particular issue.
The appearance of such qualities is possible only if there is the authority of adults in children who very subtly feel any falsehood. A sense of responsibility for oneself, one's destiny and life, without separating it from one's people, also does not appear from scratch. Only the actions and concrete deeds of all adults can sow the seeds of goodness in the soul of a child.
It is necessary to highlight and briefly describe the most promising areas of moral and patriotic education of children. Their main goals and objectives will definitely be described.
The main goal is not only strengthening, prevention of physical he alth with the acquisition of certain useful skills. Along the way, the child develops an understanding of maintaining a he althy lifestyle and the presence of competition and struggle in it, which is so necessary for any personal growth. Having matured, such a person takes for granted the existence of confrontation in any sphere of life. His natural response will be to mobilize all resources in order to become better in his chosen field.
Forms a clear civic position with a willingness to voluntarily serve his country. The emphasis is on the development of law-abidingness, the adoption of rules, norms, laws of the state. Willingness to fulfill their civic duty. The basis for this type of education is the legal framework already established between the citizen and the state. It ensures the realization of the fundamental rights and freedoms of a citizen.
Military-patriotic development of children
The highest form of patriotic education of the younger generation, based on a clear awareness, understanding of the need to master applied skills to protect their state. It is based on the military traditions inherent in this nation and a sense of pride in its Armed Forces, military history, etc. It is this direction that gives the most complete picture of the hardships of serving in the army, allowing a young man to seriously think about a military career.
Education of patriotism in the spiritheroism
Heroic-patriotic education is a necessary component of the pedagogical process, the purpose of which is to develop in young people a sense of pride in their people. As an example, the biographies of its glorious representatives, significant events and memorable dates are presented. For example, you can take the restoration of some heroic battle.
How the school works in this direction
A child's worldview is very different from that of an adult. At the service of perception there is a vivid visualization, emotionality. The reaction to significant events is stormy. For successful assimilation of information, it is necessary that it becomes meaningful. When studying history, teachers ask the student to make his family tree. You can cope with this task only by connecting adults from your family. Their stories will help the student to perceive those historical events, the participants and witnesses of which were his relatives.
Veterans are the most significant source of information about heroic events. Communicating with them causes a sense of pride among schoolchildren for their people and the values of the Victory. This is what patriotic education at school is aimed at.
The social environment plays an equally important role in the emergence of feelings of love for the Motherland. It is a pattern of behavior, and children are the best imitators in the world, from whose eyes not a single nuance escapes. Shaken foundations, reassessment of spiritual values always have a negative impact on the life of the whole society. The most unprotected in this situation again turns out to bea younger generation in dire need of role models.
The concern of the state in ensuring the continuity of generations
The collapse of the USSR affected all spheres of life of the once fraternal republics. Unfortunately, many developments of Soviet pedagogy, which is not the worst in the world, were lost. Everyone so passionately condemned the ideology, destroyed, reformed the system of education and upbringing. Thanks to all these actions, the level of education has fallen. A whole generation has appeared, whose main guideline is to achieve success at any cost, and patriotism is replaced by outright nationalism, chauvinism and fascism. "Western partners" who consider themselves infallible add fuel to the fire.
The top political leadership of Russia adopted the State Program "Patriotic Education of Citizens of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020". It says that the implementation of the mechanisms for its implementation will take place on the basis of improving the work of all institutions of state power.
This is a whole complex of specific measures, various activities, the main purpose of which is to revive the powerful system of educating youth.