Structure of the Russian economy

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Structure of the Russian economy
Structure of the Russian economy

Potentially, the Russian Federation is an economically strong state. The first place in the world in terms of occupied territory, the richest reserves of natural resources, the population, although not the largest, but in terms of opportunities (education, professional level) is a tasty morsel for any developed country.

what is the sectoral structure of the economy

However, the turbulent events of the twentieth century, the difficult political and economic situation, etc., sharply reduced the favorable options for the development of the economic structure. After another cataclysm in the early 1990s, our country found itself in a difficult situation, when potentially positive opportunities were crossed out by the general crisis.

General characteristics of the Russian economy

The modern structure of the economy is constantly changing. Russia in the second decade of the twenty-first century is a state with an industrial-agrarian economy, in which advanced industries and highly developed regions coexist with underdeveloped enterprises and backward provinces.

economic structure

Today Russia is a multi-level economic mechanism formed on the basis of historical development, inter-regional territorial economic division of labor and integration results. The general economic complex of the state consists of sectoral and territorial systems.


In terms of production, the Russian economy is mainly divided into sectors. What is the sectoral structure of the economy? In the modern economy, an industry is a community of producers of the same type (direction). Traditionally, industries are related to industry and agriculture, within which they are divided into even narrower groups.

In the sectoral structure of the Russian economy, the disproportions of previous years still remain: the extractive industries of the economy are of increased importance; the priority will be the fuel industries, while the transport and agricultural complexes, until recently, have been experiencing great difficulties; there remains a sharp concentration and a large monopolization of production.

For example, domestic industry is indicated by a large scale of specialization. Many industries, sub-sectors and types of industries have emerged, creating in their generality a sectoral system of industry. In the existing systematization of industry, 11 large complex industries and 134 sub-sectors have been formed.

For the country's economy in recent decades, a characteristic feature is the existence of not only branch enterprises, but also inter-branch complexes. Increasingly, there is a process of strengthening industrial ties,combining different levels of production. Intersectoral productions (complexes) appear and are formed both within certain industries and between different industries that have close technological relations. Now there are complexes in the extractive, raw material industries and in agriculture. One example is chemical-forest.

There are other features, characteristic features of the Russian economy of our time.

Territorial structure of the Russian economy

It implies the unification of the economic system on a territorial basis - regions, economic regions, industrial centers and so on. Such a structure changes much more slowly than the branch structure, since its leading elements are more rigidly attached to a certain territory. The development of new areas with the richest natural resources transforms the level of specific regions and contributes to the formation of new territorial economic complexes.

structure of the Russian economy

A serious shortcoming of Russia was the asymmetric system of its space, obtained as a result of development in previous eras. The territorial economic system is dominated by the Central Region (Moscow), headed by the capital, the next city of Russia - St. Petersburg - is seriously inferior to Moscow in various sizes. And all other regions, in contrast to the metropolitan metropolis, are economically much weaker.

Territorial division of Russia

Types of territorial structure of the economy and specific industries are developing underthe influence of a number of interdependent factors: the availability of raw materials, types of fuel, various materials, personnel of workers. In the course of the distribution of industrial production, various types of its territorial associations were formed.

Large economic zones are large spatial formations with specific natural and economic conditions for the formation of the economy.

Now our country is divided into two large economic zones:

  1. Western (the European part of Russia together with the Urals), which is characterized by a lack of raw materials, resources, the presence of a large amount of industrial production.
  2. Eastern (Siberia and the Far East). It is characterized by the presence of significant reserves of resources, insufficient development of the economy.

Industrial regions are large territories with relatively similar natural economic conditions, with their characteristic focus on economic development, with a proper established production and personnel base, etc.

In the Russian state there are only about 30 industrial regions, most of them are in the western zone.

what changes are taking place in the structure of the Russian economy

In addition, there are other economic associations formed due to objective economic necessity: transport, raw materials, production, etc.

General characteristics of the industry

Industry is an essential part of the economic complex of our country. Dominant roleindustry is due to the fact that it supplies all sectors of the domestic economy with production capacities and raw materials, plays the most proactive factors in scientific and technical progress and increased reproduction in general. To date, there are almost 500 thousand industrial enterprises in the country, where approximately 15 million people work, producing various products worth 20 trillion rubles. This also determines the structure of the Russian economy.

Among certain types of heavy industry and related industries occupy more than 30%, fuel - almost 20%, electricity - 8%. At the same time, the state of light industry is in a deplorable state -1.5%, food - 15%, etc.

Industry structure

What changes are taking place in the structure of the Russian economy? Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, Russian statistics has come to a different systematization of industry:

  • manufacturing industries (67%);
  • mining (more than 20%);
  • production and sharing of electricity, natural gas and water (10%).
  • technological progress.

The modern industry of our country is determined by:

  • dominance of industries for the extraction and conventional processing of fuel and raw materials;
  • a small fraction of the most advanced, technically difficult industries;
  • a small share of light industry and other industries aimed at the direct needs of the population;
  • large proportion of enterprises of the military-industrial complex.

Similar structurethe economy of the industry cannot be considered efficient. In recent years, there has been a trend towards restructuring the economy, but the process is just beginning and will obviously be long and difficult.

Energy & Fuel

In the structure of the Russian economy, the fuel and energy complex is one of the most significant types of consolidated economic associations, which is a set of tightly connected and interacting energy enterprises, fuel generation, supplying the domestic economy and the country's population with important resources and being one of the important types goods in the foreign market.

The share of the fuel and energy complex in the recent history of the country is about 60% of Russia's total exports.

sectoral structure of the Russian economy

Fuel industry

Commercially produced fuel is the main source of energy in the existing economy. In terms of fuel we alth, the structure of the Russian economy has a leading place in the world.

According to the leading types of resources, there are industries that produce gaseous, liquid and solid fuels.

Each species has its own advantages. Gas (approximately 30% of the explored total natural gas reserves are located in Russia) is cheap, easily transported without loss of quality. A large number of gas pipelines run from Eastern Russia to Europe, and the length of gas pipelines in Asia has been increasing in recent years.

Oil industry

Russia has quite large proven oil reserves. Oil is used not only as a fuel,but also as fuel for internal engines and raw materials for petrochemicals.


The largest volumes of mankind's fuel are concentrated in Russia. The coal industry is one of the largest in terms of the number of workers and the value of fixed industrial assets.

Power industry

Electric energy is the main locomotive of the economy. In terms of the production of this type of energy, the structure of the economy of our country is one of the leading places in the world.

The leading power producers are thermal, hydro and nuclear.

THP produces almost 70% of Russian electricity. They are created relatively quickly and at minimal cost. Coal, fuel oil and peat are used as fuel.

HPPs generate 15% of total electricity generation. They are created on large rivers. Russia has the world's largest hydroelectric power plants.

NPPs provide up to 14% of electricity.

They are created in production areas where large energy reserves are needed.

Metallurgical complex

The complex houses the black and non-ferrous industries.

Speaking of ferrous metallurgy, it must be said that ferrous metallurgy enterprises contain a full metallurgical cycle, there is also conversion development (without cast iron).

Russia occupies a leading position in the world in the production of ferrous metals.

structure of agriculture

Factors that influence the distribution of enterprises:

  • presence of a large amount of raw materials;
  • cheap fuel;
  • lots of water;
  • cheap electricity.

Thanks to this, enterprises are located either in areas where raw materials are received, or in areas where fuel is received.

Main directions of the agricultural sector

The structure of agriculture depends on climate and natural resources. The large scale of our country has contributed to the formation of economic regions.

There have always been two directions in this sector - crop growing and animal husbandry, which once determined the fortunes of entire nations, and now seriously affect economic development. Both of them, respectively, are divided into dozens of industries.

A serious specificity of agricultural activity will be the constant dependence on natural factors, in particular on agro-climatic changes. These circumstances determine not only physical geography, but also the leading specialization of directions. There are all sorts of branches of the agricultural sector, from ordinary to exotic in the form of pineapple crops and shrimp food farms. But they all have one thing in common. The created product will always be needed by the consumer.

Crop production

Man began to farm in order to have a significant harvest for subsistence, for a long time. In our country - several thousand years ago. Now in Russia the land is cultivated mainly in the forest-steppe and steppe zones.

Domestic agriculture has a bright zonality, the types of farm structure are constantly changing. This is clear to everyone: it is impossible to get beets or potatoes in permafrost. Plus, you need to sell. Soagriculture is also developing especially rapidly near large cities. There was a suburban type of agriculture. And in the northern territories near the cities, crop production in closed ground is developing.

territorial structure of agriculture in Russia

The European part is the most favorable agricultural region in our country. Agricultural plots stand in a continuous strip. In other regions, the situation is much worse and selective. Hence the big difference between the volume of production, the nomenclature of crops and so on.

In general, the agricultural sector in Russia is mainly golden fields, where future bread is located. Hard and soft varieties are grown. Other cultures follow.


Livestock has always produced a lot of products. One piece of meat is worth it. Without this product, there would be no man. You cannot know human civilization without milk. And a number of other products. But the amount of work and responsibility are great.

In Russia, cattle are mainly grown, they are fed in most regions. Pig meat is also received a lot.

All regions are to some extent exporters of meat and other food products. In the North they get venison. There are many goats and sheep in the mountainous regions.

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