Speech communication: types, forms and styles

Science 2023

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Speech communication: types, forms and styles
Speech communication: types, forms and styles
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Different types of communication are an essential part of a person's daily life. Without the types of verbal communication available to us, it would be extremely difficult to contact, work together, and achieve significant goals. Texts allow you to communicate not only with acquaintances through electronic messages and paper letters, but also with representatives of other eras - for this there are books and magazines, manuscripts and other works that have survived to our time, as well as created now - they will be read in the future. Without communication, human life is simply unthinkable.

Relevance of the issue

There are two main types of verbal communication - verbal, non-verbal. The first involves the use of words, the use of some national language that has formed naturally. Non-verbal format - interaction through conditional postures, facial expressions and tonality of speech, text arrangement and filling it with additional graphic materials, tables and diagrams.

Verbal and non-verbal language always go together. With regard to speech, they are divided only theoretically, since it is more convenient to describe the processes of interaction between individuals in this way. In practice, non-verbal and verbal types of speech communication cannot exist without each other.exist. Linguists say that the norm of verbal communication is a balance between verbal and non-verbal components.

types of speech communication in Russian

Types and categories

Another approach to singling out the types of verbal communication is the division of such into informative and non-informative. Informative is one in which the purpose of the contact is associated with some data. As part of the interaction, participants read, listen, report something, thereby transferring new knowledge to the addressee.

Non-informative interaction is necessary to form contact with the object of communication, while the participant does not have goals and objectives related to obtaining and disseminating information. This type of situations of verbal communication is aimed at satisfying the desire to communicate. People say something to each other, count on understanding, get the opportunity to share their opinions. It is these needs and desires that are the main goal of non-informative communication.

How many of us?

There is a division into types of oral-speech communication associated with the number of participants. It is customary to talk about monologues and dialogues. At the same time, the roles of the participants in the interaction and their ability to change places are evaluated. A variant is possible when one speaks, the second listens, as well as a communication path in which the participants change these roles.

Dialogue is a word formed in Greek and denoting the expression of an opinion by two or more participants. In a monologue, one person speaks and the others listen. With this format of interaction, the exchange of remarks, and hence opinions, does nothappening.

As a rule, a monologue can be determined by the continuity of speech, while the statement is superphrasal, voluminous. The speech is logical and consistent, makes sense, complete, aimed at communication, reveals one topic. As a rule, the monologue is rather complex syntactically.

About classification

When analyzing the forms and types of verbal communication, it is necessary to pay attention to the distant and contact options. The division into these categories is based on an analysis of the position of the participants in communication relative to each other. It is not only about geographical distance, but also a certain period of time. In the contact form, partners are located nearby, they can make eye contact, hear each other's speech. Communication occurs through words and non-verbal methods.

types and styles of speech communication

Distant - a type of speech communication, the concept of which involves the separation of communicating people geographically and in time. A good example is a book. The author of the work and the reader, as a rule, are separated by both space and time periods, so reading becomes a distant speech communication. In some cases, the division occurs only on one factor - geographically or in time. An example of the type of verbal communication, in which time is the same, but the geography is different, is interaction through a dialogue on the Virtual Web or by telephone. Separation by time within the same space - exchange of notes in the same room, audience.

Should I say it?

Types, forms of verbal communication are alsowritten and oral communication. Each of the situations has its own characteristics, allowing it to be attributed to a certain group, as well as the forms of speech used by the interlocutors. Oral communication is practiced (usually) when it is possible to establish personal contact. In most cases, this is both an opportunity to hear and see the interlocutor.

Choose, taking into account the etiquette of speech communication, the type and form of interaction. Much depends on the amount of information to be conveyed to the addressee, on the level of importance of the information. So, oral interaction is a single utterance, and in writing a person can re-read the information received many times. Therefore, it is better to convey complex, voluminous data in writing, since their perception will be more adequate. But easy-to-understand information can be sent to the addressee orally, in most cases this is enough.

Choosing the optimal form for a particular case, the style of verbal communication, it is necessary to analyze who is the addressee of the information, what should be the conditions for the best perception.

Nuances and specifics

When choosing the optimal form for a particular case, it is taken into account that oral speech is produced once, often the speaker is characterized by improvisation. At the same time, the set of means for conveying the intended meaning is limited. In written communication, the expression of intent is usually implemented to the end.

concept and types of speech communication

Oral speech is formed at the moment when a person speaks. The text is not fixed in advance, you can change and supplementthe initial idea, which leads to a sudden conclusion at the end of the monologue: "That's not what I was going to say at all!". There are no such problems in the written format of communication - the text is fixed, maintained in a single style, proofread for compliance with the intended idea.

The law of redundancy explains the abundance of repetition in verbal expression of information. In addition, this type of speech communication in Russian (and not only) allows generalizations. When formulating an idea in writing, repetitions, generalizations are avoided whenever possible, up to a complete elimination.

Public Voice Contact

Consideration of the concept and types of verbal communication obliges to pay attention to the division of all cases into public and mass. The first involves a monologue. It is in this form that lectures at universities or meetings are built. The speech of the participant should have a clear structure, because the main idea of ​​​​the event is to achieve some predetermined goal, for the sake of which people gather in the chosen place. Without a structure, speech is unlikely to be a significant assistant in achieving your goals. A public format is a meaningful statement with a specific purpose. For the public format, the level of responsibility is rated as higher.

Public form of verbal communication of people is possible in oral, written form. The first type - performances at stadiums and within the framework of various events, the second - publications in print media, which led to their name - mass media. With such interaction, the addressee of information does not have a specific person, and the speaker forms forgeneral idea of ​​who the person listening to him is.

Officiation and place for it

The main types of verbal communication are official and private. The first is also called official. It is assumed that there is a business environment, compliance with strictness, strict adherence to the rules, endurance of all formalities.

Private dialogue - a relationship in which there is no clear structure and restrictions, division into roles. Within a private conversation, communication is usually based on some common interest or belonging to a social group, and the dialogue itself is subordinated to the relationship between the participants. At the same time, communication is relatively free, it is subject to general laws, but etiquette is not as important as for a business format.

types of verbal communication examples

Definitions and concepts

Speech communication, types of speech situations are based on the presence of interest on the part of all participants in the process, as well as motivation to maintain contact. As a rule, there is a certain target setting, for the implementation of which speech activity is necessary. Communication becomes a part of social life and work, knowledge and learning. Communication between several persons is possible, each of which is active, is a carrier of information and communicates with others, assuming that they also have data of interest. Communication involves a reciprocal process. It refers to the social activity inherent in the representatives of society, therefore, like other types of such activities, aimed at achieving a specific goal, it is social.

Reviewingtypes of verbal communication, the concept of a culture of verbal communication, it is necessary to pay special attention to the features of the forms through which the process is implemented. Speech behavior is a form, and content is an activity. Behavior allows you to organize actions from the internal state that show the attitude of a person to the world around her and the figures.

Man and forms of his behavior

Using language and speech types of verbal communication involve verbal and real behavior. The first is usually understood as such a system of opinions, evidence, phrases that can be interpreted as a manifestation of a mental state. Real is considered such interconnected behavior, formed by the actions of a person trying to adapt to the space in which he must function.

Speech behavior and the corresponding activity differ from each other in the level of motivation and awareness of the factors pushing for a certain act. Activity - motivated activity, behavior - little conscious activity, expressed through learned stereotypes, patterns, as well as imitation of others and following stereotypes formed on the basis of personal experience.

types of verbal communication the concept of a culture of verbal communication

Important to know

Analyzing the types of communication and types of speech activity, it is necessary to pay attention that the result of the activity is a certain text or a complete thought, while the behavior is aimed at forming relationships between members of society - these can be constructive, destructive, positive andmalevolent. In addition, behavior is aimed at forming an emotional component, which is explained by how the participants in the dialogue behave.

It is especially important to pay attention to verbal communication in the framework of the formation of the child's personality, the development of his social life skills and activity. At the same time, adults should teach both activities and behavior. When working, for example, with schoolchildren, we are talking about creating communicative competence. It is necessary to transfer the system of language, speech, materials, as well as norms of communication and behavior to the younger generation.

On current issues

Many researchers agree that recently one of the problems of society is the aggression that participants resort to in order to achieve their goals in the process of communication. For example, invective vocabulary is used too actively, which means that a parity dialogue becomes impossible, normal contact in such a situation is problematic, a conflict is born. Negative etiquette and negative speech patterns can be seen both in life and in drama. This is connected, among other things, with fashion - the public is interested in characters who show intolerant behavior during communication.

speech communication types of etiquette

Theory and practice

Actively took up the study of communication scientists only in the second half of the last century. Significant works saw the light in the 60-70s. In them, the emphasis was placed on the social parameters of human interaction, as well as psychological characteristics, the semantic assessment of the actinteractions. The researchers analyzed the rules, the specifics of verbal behavior and verbal communication.

Interest in this area is fully justified - without communication it is simply impossible to imagine humanity; interaction is an important part of the life of any person, it cannot be removed. Communication is relevant not only for a specific person, but also for peoples and cultures. In different forms of culture, various communication options are practiced, but in any case, the main idea of ​​​​interaction is to understand the interlocutor and feel him correctly, without distortion. Studying how interaction occurs, three levels have been identified: perceptual, interactive, communicative.

And if in more detail?

The first, basic level is communication. It allows you to exchange information using the language, traditions, and other features that unite the interlocutors and allow them to understand each other.

Interactive - the second, higher level. It presupposes relationships. At the same time, the personal characteristics of a person have an important influence.

The perceptual level is a dialogue between cultures. It is spoken about when representatives of different linguistic and cultural communities mutually try to understand each other. The study of this particular level attracts many scientists, linguists and sociologists, psychologists. Communicative behavior and the perceptual level of interaction are interconnected, since it is this level that is intended to convey to the interlocutor the intentions and goals that the speaker has.

speech communication types of speech situations

Allinterconnected

To characterize communication, it is necessary to analyze the process of forming a contact, which is explained by some needs. Within the framework of joint activity, participants exchange information, which allows us to talk about verbal communication. Partners interact by perceiving each other and making efforts to understand the interlocutor. Speech behavior reflects the erudition of the individual and intellectual characteristics, motivation and emotional, mental state. All this can usually be identified by analyzing the features of the use of vocabulary and the style of statements.

For our days, the problem of tolerance and its absence is becoming more and more urgent. It is not possible to form an accurate and generally accepted understanding of the boundaries of a tolerant attitude. The idea of ​​tolerance within the framework of verbal communication is the exclusion of aggression, that is, such an impact when one of the participants in the dialogue starts a confrontation, sets the conditions for a conflict, since it does not share the opinion of the interlocutor. To express his position, a person resorts to negative methods and means of interaction. In order for communication to be effective, it is necessary to mutually take into account the interests of all parties and be tolerant of others, accepting someone else's point of view without conflict. Verbal communication ideally involves condescension to the shortcomings of others and equality in dialogue.

Tolerant communication: what is it like?

The essence of such behavior is the suppression of aggression, that is, the exclusion of a conflict setting on the part of a dialogue participant. As part of the interactioninterested persons take into account the norms of etiquette, show tolerance and attentiveness to each other. Tolerant interaction is built on friendliness, trust and sensitivity, following tact and the ability to empathize. Ethics presupposes the desire of all participants to achieve mutual understanding, for which individuals are ready to coordinate interests and actions without putting pressure on each other. Within the framework of tolerant verbal communication, it is important to build a constructive dialogue and explain one's arguments, to convince the interlocutor.

In order for communication to be tolerant, partners should strive to form a constructive dialogue. This can be achieved if the goals, interests of the subjects of the process are taken into account, and all participants are respected. According to a number of scientists, tolerance is not just tolerance, but active cooperation, and activity on this basis is possible only with the ability of a person to make strong-willed efforts to realize positive qualities in an alien essence.

Tolerant communication is an activity focused on a specific goal, on the formation of a parity dialogue and on the consciousness of what is alien to an individual participant. To successfully achieve the result, you need to master the language material, have skills, speech skills, using phrases and markers that are suitable for the situation.

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