Communication as a form of communication involves the exchange of information, thoughts, values, feelings. This term has Latin roots. Literally translated, the concept of communication means "common", "shared by all". The exchange of information leads to the mutual understanding necessary to achieve the goal. Consider further the features of communication in the organization.
In a broad sense, the concept of communication is associated with the implementation of changes, the impact on activities to achieve the prosperity of the company. In a narrow sense, its goal is to achieve an accurate understanding by the receiving party of the message sent to it. The means and forms of communication are very diverse. Together, they form a fairly complex and multi-level system.
Classification of communications
It is carried out according to various criteria. Types of communication are distinguished by the composition of the participants. So it can be mass, group and interpersonal. Types of communication are distinguished depending on:
- Method of establishing and maintaining contact. According to this criterion, direct (immediate) and remote(mediated) communications.
- The initiative of the participants. On this basis, passive and active interactions are distinguished.
- Degrees of organization of information exchange. This criterion allows us to distinguish between organized and casual communications.
- Used sign systems. On this basis, non-verbal and verbal interactions are distinguished.
Besides, there are forms of communication. Interaction can be carried out in the form of a discussion, negotiations, briefing, meeting, meeting, conversation, business correspondence, reception on personal matters, press conferences, telephone conversations, presentations, and so on.
The condition for successful communication of this type is the creation by the participants of a common reality, outside of which interaction cannot take place at all. This premise is called by researchers the contractual aspect of the exchange. The main forms of communication and their effectiveness are determined by the parameters of individuals. The key ones are functional, motivational and cognitive features. The latter includes various characteristics through which the inner world of the individual is formed in the course of the accumulation of cognitive experience. This, in particular, is about knowledge of communication codes, self-awareness, self-observation, metacommunicative skills, the ability to adequately assess the capabilities of a partner. These characteristics should also include prejudices and myths, beliefs and stereotypes.
Motivationalparameter is determined by the needs of individuals. If they are absent, then, accordingly, there is no interaction or there is pseudo-communication. The functional indicator includes 3 characteristics. They determine the competence of the individual. Such characteristics are the practical possession of verbal and non-verbal communication means, the ability to build discourse in accordance with the rules of etiquette and code norms.
It arises in the process of direct communication of a small number of subjects who know each other well and constantly exchange information. The lower limit of such communication is usually a dyad or a triad. The first involves the interaction of two, and the second - three individuals. The upper limit will depend on the nature of the group's activities. All forms of communication in a group, except for informative, also implement other functions. For example, during interactions, agreement is formed, unity of actions is ensured, a certain culture is formed.
In a small group, various information is distributed through communication systems. They can be centralized or decentralized. In the first case, the subject spreads information around him that is important for the group. Centralized networks are divided into:
- Front. In such a system, participants do not make contact, but are within sight of each other.
- Radial. In such a system, information is transmitted to group membersthrough the central entity.
- Hierarchical. These structures involve two or more levels of subordination of participants.
In decentralized networks, group members are equal. Each participant can receive, process and transmit data, communicate directly with other subjects. Such a system can be in the form:
- Chains. Within this structure, information is distributed sequentially from participant to participant.
- Circles. Under such a system, all members of the group have the same opportunities. At the same time, information can endlessly circulate between the participants, be refined, supplemented.
Decentralized data exchange system can be complete. In this case, there are no barriers to free interaction.
The choice of this or that network will depend on the form of communication, the purposes of data exchange. It is advisable to transfer information through centralized systems when information must be conveyed to all people, it is necessary to unite the participants organizationally, and stimulate the development of leadership. Meanwhile, it should be noted that within the framework of centralized networks, the implementation of creative and complex tasks is significantly more difficult. Frequent use of such systems may contribute to a decrease in the satisfaction of subjects from participation in the group. Decentralized networks are used in practice to solve creative and complex problems. They are also effective in increasing participant satisfaction and developing interpersonal relationships.
Exchange of information inorganizations
The process of interaction in a company can be conditionally divided into planned (formal) dissemination of information and informal (unplanned) transmission of data. In the first case, standard forms (forms) are used. Communication in this case will take relatively little time. The use of standard forms provides a number of advantages for the recipient of the information. In particular, the subject can specify the category of information that he needs in his work. The key disadvantage of this form of communication is the lack of flexibility.
Often, information is transmitted through indirect channels at a very high speed. Informal communication networks are also called rumor channels. At the same time, the trust of interaction participants in informal sources is often higher than in official ones.
Data sharing areas
Communication processes can be divided into two major areas: internal and external. The first involves interaction within the enterprise. External communication is a system of links between the structure and third parties. In both areas, different data exchange channels can be used.
Information flow directions
On this basis, communications are divided into vertical and horizontal. The former, in turn, include ascending and descending information flows. In the latter case, the information flow moves from one level to another, lower one.An example is the interaction of a leader with subordinates. The upstream direction of information transfer is used to provide feedback from employees to the boss. Such methods of communication are used to bring tasks to subordinates, inform management about the results of work and current problems. The horizontal direction involves the interaction of participants with equal rank, as well as equivalent groups.
Mass sharing of information
It is carried out using technical means. At the same time, information is distributed to dispersed and large audiences. Mass communications are also characterized by:
- The social significance of information.
- The ability to choose and multi-channel means of communication.
Participants in such interaction are not individuals, but collective subjects. For example, it can be an army, people, government. The social significance of such an exchange of information lies in meeting specific public expectations and demands.
Mass interaction, especially in modern times, is characterized by multi-channel. In particular, auditory, visual, audio-visual, written, oral forms of communication are used. The sender of the data is a social institution or a mythologized subject. The recipients are the target groups, which are united according to a number of socially significant features.
Bulk interaction features
The following are distinguishedcommunication tasks:
- Informational. This function consists in providing the mass listener, viewer, reader with up-to-date data on various fields of activity.
- Regulatory. Mass data exchange has an impact on the formation of the consciousness of the individual and the group, public opinion, and the creation of stereotypes. This allows you to control social behavior. People usually accept those ethical requirements, norms, principles that are promoted in the media as a positive stereotype of clothing style, lifestyle, communication, etc. This is how a person is socialized in accordance with the norms that are preferred at this historical stage.
- Culturological. This function involves familiarizing society with the achievements of art and culture. It contributes to the awareness of the need for the continuity of values and the preservation of traditions.
Mass communication uses special means, which are channels and transmitters through which information is distributed over large areas. The modern system includes several links. In particular, the QMS includes the media, informatics and telecommunications. The former include the press, audiovisual channels (radio, teletexts, etc.), information services. The media consist of technical means of fixing, replicating, copying, storing data, as well as the constant, systematic distribution of large volumes of musical, verbal, figurative information.