What engine does the UFO have? That's a very difficult question. Numerous "thought experiments" have been conducted by scientists and amateurs alike on how alien spaceships might work (on paper, as both amateurs and scientists don't have the hardware).
Many books on the subject were written by Paul R. Hill in 1995, James McCampbell (70s), Leonard J. Cramp (1966), Plantier (1953). They all approached the UFO phenomenon from a 'mad scientist' trade point of view, and their theories for explaining the maneuvering of alien ships were based on the idea that the source of their movement was hard-wired to the ship.
Other engineers and physicists who take a public and ongoing interest in the subject of UFOs or speculate about how they might work are: Hermann Oberth; James E. McDonald; James Harder; Harley D. Rutledge; Jack Sarfatti; Harold Puthoff; Claude Poer, who in the late 1970s led GEPAN, a French government project to studyunidentified objects, and many others. This article summarizes what we humans know about UFO engines.
If we want to explain UFOs in terms of physics that we understand, but rely on observations, then it seems safe to assume that they are capable of generating artificial gravitational fields (in terms of general relativity - manipulate the curvature of the fabric of space-time), just as we produce magnetism with electric currents.
It is believed that the glow of different colors around the UFO is due to the ionization of the surrounding air. The atmosphere around them seems to "light up", it is very similar to what happens in neon lamps. This is a kind of "plasma shell". Changes in the brightness and color of the "plasma shell", apparently due to the operation of the engine.
Ionization of air and radiation
Air ionization appears to be caused by electromagnetic radiation emitted by ships and is believed to be a secondary effect of the propulsion system. This includes ultraviolet radiation (as evidenced by many cases of eye and skin irritation of people who have personally observed alien ships) and soft x-rays (as evidenced by traces of a “burn ring” on the ground where flying saucers landed). Given the difficulty of generating plasma under normal atmospheric conditions, combined with other observations such as the luminosity of underwater UFOs, the sudden appearance of condensation/fog whenlaunching in conditions of high humidity and no noise suggests the presence of an envelope with a lower density than the atmosphere around the flying saucers.
The vacuum created when air or water is "pushed" off the ship's hull (confirmed by sightings of UFOs rising out of the water) minimizes friction and heat problems. Plasma can interact strongly with electromagnetic radiation.
"Plasma ste alth" is a proposed process that uses ionized gas (plasma) to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of an aircraft. This may explain why sometimes alien ships are visually visible but not tracked on radar. They often have a very strong magnetic field. Also, in some cases, light, such as from car headlights or beam spotlights, is reported to "bent" in front of a mysterious alien object, an effect that some believe is related to the most controversial aspect of UFO reports. It's about the ability of some flying saucers to disappear and reflect light.
The physiological effects of UFOs on humans often include:
- sunburn effect and eye irritation;
- severely dry nose and throat;
- vision color changes;
- severe headaches;
- feeling hot/burning.
Often after a collision with alien ships, bystanders and animals got sick and even died with symptoms similar toradiation poisoning. Apparently, the UFO uses something radioactive as fuel for the engine.
Many ideas have been proposed, including that alien spaceships store energy in a very concentrated form, convert gravity into usable energy, or use ambient energy, or use remote energy transmission.
Defying the laws of physics
Aliens seem to defy our currently accepted physics, such as their ships speeding up without releasing any chemical from the back. Both Newtonian gravity and general relativity (Einstein's theory of gravity) require the presence of "negative mass" (or energy) for antigravity to be possible. This has been a major obstacle to the study of unidentified objects by many "mainstream" physicists in previous decades.
The most adequate and reasonable explanation for the operation of the UFO engine is the so-called gravitomagnetism and, in particular, any connection between gravity and superconductivity.
Statements made in the 1990s by Russian materials scientist E. Podkletnov about the effects of "gravity shielding" in experiments with rotating superconductors in a magnetic field were characterized as "contradictory" and, apparently, had a negative impact on his career. Just like how Otis T. Carr's UFO engine had a negative impact on his career, exposing him as a marginal. Howeverthe models of these two researchers seem to be the most plausible for explaining the operation of extraterrestrial vehicles.
In March 2006, an experiment by the Austrian physicist M. Teimar and his colleagues, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), reported the creation of a toroidal (tangential, azimuthal) gravitational field in a rotating accelerated (time-dependent angular velocity) superconducting niobium ring. The opinion of some scholars stems from the fact that the UFO literature since the 1940s has consistently documented:
- direct gravitational influence;
- flying saucers move as if the drive were acting perpendicular to the disk plane;
- strong magnetic field.
Commonly observed alien spacecraft shapes (disk, spheroid) do not seem to be chosen for aerodynamic purposes. When discoid flying saucers want to fly away quickly, they tilt and fly with the disk plane pointing forward.
Paul Hill's remarks
Scientists do not have a clear answer to the question of how the UFO engine works. A very curious book by Paul Hill (NASA aeronautical engineer) "Unidentified Flying Objects: Scientific Analysis", dedicated to highlighting the fact of the existence of alien ships and their characteristics. Hill writes that to the extent that UFO engineering performance can be assessed by empirical observation, he gives this verycharacterization, voicing many of the ideas written above.
One of the most frequently observed characteristics of the flight of extraterrestrial spacecraft (and hence the design of the UFO engine) is the habit of flying saucers to tilt during all maneuvers. Specifically, they hover at the same level when hovering, but lean forward to move in that direction, lean backward to stop, and so on.
Hill's detailed analysis shows that such motion is inconsistent with aerodynamic requirements, but is fully consistent with the repulsive force field theory. Not satisfied with the paper analysis alone, Hill organized the construction and testing of various forms of circular jet-powered flying platforms. Hill himself acted as a test pilot on early versions and found the aforementioned movements to be the most economical for handling purposes.
In an effort to further explore the force field hypothesis, the previously mentioned Hill analyzed a number of cases involving near-field interactions with a craft that had demonstrated some form of gravitational force. These include examples where a person or vehicle has been injured, tree branches have been torn or broken, roof tiles have been dislodged, objects have been deflected, and the ground or water has been deformed in contact with the UFO.
When carefully analyzed, the subtleties of these interactions come together,to unambiguously indicate the repulsive force field surrounding the apparatus. Further detailed investigations show that the specific form of force field driving force that satisfies the limitations of observation is what Hill calls a directional acceleration field, that is, a field that is usually of a gravitational nature and, in particular, gravitational suppression. Such a field acts on all masses in its sphere of influence, just like a gravitational field. The implication of this finding is that the observed accelerations of ~100g with respect to the environment can be met without the use of high force onboard forces, such as the UFO's central thruster. That is, an alien spacecraft can hover without using its motor.
One consequence of the above UFO engine identification is Hill's conclusion, supported by detailed calculations, computer simulations and aerodynamic research, that supersonic yet silent flight through the atmosphere is easy to design.
Manipulation of an accelerating-type force field even at supersonic speeds would result in a constant pressure zone without a shock wave, in which the vehicle is surrounded by a subsonic streamline flow pattern and subsonic velocity ratios. An additional benefit of this field control is that drops of moisture, rain, dust, insects, or other low-velocity objects will follow streamlined paths around the ship instead of impacting it.
Another mystery solved by Hill's analysis is that flying saucers seen in continuous motion do not appear to generate temperatures high enough to destroy known materials. In other words, UFOs prevent high aerodynamic heating rates, rather than allowing a heating problem to occur, and then "cooling" with heat-resistant materials, as is the case with NASA's Space Shuttle, whose surface temperatures can reach 1,300°C. Hill showed that the solution to this potential problem stemmed from the fact that force field control, which leads to the avoidance of drag, as discussed above, also effectively prevents aerodynamic heating. As a result, the air stream approaches, then bounces off the ship without releasing energy. This is the principle of the UFO engine.
Another example of the type of correlation that emerges from Hill's analytical approach is provided by analyzing the economy of different flight path profiles. It is shown that deviations with a large angle and high acceleration on trajectories with a ballistic arc and with high-speed coastal segments are more effective than, for example, intermediate flights along a horizontal path. This is also reflected in the principle of operation of the UFO engine.