The fall of the reduced in Russian: results, examples

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The fall of the reduced in Russian: results, examples
The fall of the reduced in Russian: results, examples

The Russian language can rightly be considered a great asset of the entire Slavic people. On the way of his formation, he faced many different transformations, including the fall of the reduced ones. Changes throughout the history of the formation of the language occurred in all its areas and sections: vocabulary, grammar, phonetics. Of course, many people would be interested in studying each of these areas for a more complete understanding and objective formation of a picture of the modern Russian language.

old Russian way of life

People are opening up the widest scope for research and obtaining various new knowledge, as well as opportunities for predicting further development. The history of the Russian language is one of those blocks of information that everyone whose occupation is somehow connected with the humanities needs to navigate. It is for this reason that, among other subjects, students who receive higher education at universities have a huge number of disciplines that affect the history and development of the language, which include the fall of the reduced ones in the Russian language. All knowledge gainedcontribute to the expansion of a holistic view of history and linguistics with philology. All the studied branches are undoubtedly closely interconnected with each other. Thus, some lexical transformations happened due to phonetic changes.

Historical phonetics

Old Russian alphabet

This section in the history of language formation is one of the most important for learning and general understanding. He is engaged in the fact that he studies the system of sounds and its modification in the course of time. In addition, scientists in this field identify certain patterns that they use to predict future changes. One of the main topics that historical phonetics touches on is the fall of the reduced ones. The consequences of this process deserve special attention, but everything should be told in order. In the course of this transformation, a radical restructuring took place in the Proto-Slavic language in all its spheres and areas, and in particular, the process affected the phonetic system.

The difference between two languages

leaf from a book

If we summarize all the results of the process, we can safely say that this change is the fundamental difference between the modern state of the language and the ancient one. If an ancient Russian person met with a typical inhabitant of Russia of the present time, then there is a high probability that they would simply not understand each other. Writing at that time was also strikingly different from modern, so reading Old Slavonic letters will not be easy for an ordinary person whonot interested in studying this topic. That is why it is so important and it should be given special attention. To begin with, let's discuss the basic terms and concepts, bring the reader up to date.


Slavic alphabet

First, let's answer the main question: what does the term "reduction of b and b" mean? If you did not know about this before, then in the ancient Slavic language there were two incomplete vowels - ъ ("er") and ь ("er"). During their pronunciation, the vocal cords practically did not strain, and therefore they were called reduced. According to historical data, the use of such vowels has spread among all Slavic languages, but in the future they have undergone some changes. Linguists from all over the world believe that these letters, or rather, sounds, were some kind of modern "and short" and disappeared forever "at short". In modern phonetics, these letters do not carry a special semantic load, but serve only to facilitate the reading of words. However, one cannot ignore the fact that in the language of our ancestors these vowel and consonant phonemes were quite independent.

Interesting fact

I would like to draw your attention to the fact that in some literary monuments there are special musical signs above "er" and "er". They indicate their publicity when reading. It was customary to indicate the same sign above the vowels to which we are already accustomed.

Influence of location

Bulgarian alphabet

Before the fallreduced, their location in the word strongly influenced pronunciation. Thus, they could be pronounced with different longitudes depending on the position in which they stood. Strong positions mean stretching sounds and pronouncing them for a long time, and weak positions mean short pronunciation.

Strong vowel positions of incomplete education

  • Before the reduced in a weak position.
  • Stressed.

In this case, they were pronounced continuously.

Weak positions of "er" and "er"

  • At the end of a word.
  • Before a full vowel.

In this case, they were spoken briefly.

Global changes

Old Slavonic alphabet

About the XII century, significant transformations took place in the Old Russian language, which led to the fall of the reduced ones. This process was finally completed only by the end of the 13th century. Before such global changes, all vowels were not divided into stressed and unstressed, and therefore were pronounced the same way. The pronunciation of all words also differed significantly from what we are used to in modern Russian. However, the general changes did not end there, as speech soon accelerated significantly, and all vowels began to be pronounced more briefly than before. The result of the fall of the reduced ones was the appearance of such vowels as "o" and "e" in a strong position for them and the disappearance of two phonemes. There was the most radical restructuring of the entire language in its entire history.history.

Results of modifications

The language has become closer to the modern and familiar to us in terms of hearing and writing.

  1. The Russian language has acquired many closed syllables and monosyllabic words.
  2. Some words got null endings after "er" and "er" disappeared.
  3. Some morphemes began to consist of one letter.
  4. There are prepositions and conjunctions consisting of only letters.
  5. Runaway and alternating vowels appeared in the roots.

In addition to all of the above, there have been many other changes that you can read if you seriously study this topic.

One thing is certain and certain. The fall of the reduced ones caused significant transformations in all branches of the Russian language, which contributed to its further development and progress in general. It is thanks to them that we read and speak the way we do now. These transformations were reflected in the entire further development of the sound system. In addition to all the consequences described above, it is impossible not to pay attention to the fact that such "mutations" also led to modifications in the morphology of the Russian language. They also provoked transformations in the phonetics of words.


We hope you found this article useful and that you read it to the end. And we can only wish you good luck in further studying the history and culture of the Slavic people, their speech and writing.

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