Text structure: how to create it and make the text easy to read. Logical and semantic structure of the text

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Text structure: how to create it and make the text easy to read. Logical and semantic structure of the text
Text structure: how to create it and make the text easy to read. Logical and semantic structure of the text

Many millions of texts are born every day. There are so many virtual pages that it is unlikely that they are subject to accounting. Millions of people write about events that have happened in their lives, describe phenomena, discuss news, share practical guides, publish interviews, compose jokes, write poems, stories, novels and even novels. This is not a complete list of human activities on the web, but there is a common component - a text is always created with a more or less carefully adjusted structure.

text structure

There is a text structure that is easily perceived, but there is also one that is not so easy to understand. Let's consider some types of compiling textual material, and most importantly, we will present tips for creating such a text that is convenient and quick to read and deeply perceived.

Text structure. Varieties

Depending on the task, the elements of structuring are determined by the creator individually. Not all authors know how to do this correctly, which is why it turns out that some texts are perceived 100% even diagonally, while others make you stop and rearrange words in sentences in order to get to the bottom of it.meaning. How to eliminate the chaos of misunderstanding?

text analysis

For complete clarity, the structure of the text is divided into several unequal parts and is considered step by step. The text must have a heading that cannot be missed, and the main part, as a rule, divided into semantic paragraphs. Plus, subheadings and lists significantly improve the quality of perception. The main part may have its own - internal - structure of the text (depending on what tasks the author faces when completing the assignment).

Even the Irish writer Joyce's stream of consciousness in the wonderful book "Ulysses" is painstakingly and distinctly built. It has its own structure - artistically ordered chaos. And, for example, a business text requires a completely different way of organizing. First of all, you need to understand the existing types and types of text letters.

Internal structure and its types

1. logical component. Features: each paragraph is related in meaning to the previous one, directly or at least indirectly continuing it in meaning. Practical guides, articles, descriptions, in a word, everything that falls under the term "business text" is characterized by a logical, consistent component. Undoubtedly, this is a very convenient way to write texts and perceive them. Text analysis is especially easy using this method, and subsequent conclusions are especially quickly indicated.

compose a text

For example, here in the first paragraph the author describes the rule for using the logical component of the structuretext. The second gives an example of construction. Next, the next type of structure will be considered. As you can see, everything is simple. The logical structure of the text complements and continues what was started in the previous paragraphs.

2. pyramidal structure. This type is typical for writing news feeds and press releases. The pyramid turns out to be inverted, because at its wide base, that is, at the very beginning, the author places all the basic information. Further, it simply acquires details that reveal the essence.

The principle of the inverted pyramid helps the reader to immediately find out the main thing: what this article is about, whether it is interesting to him, whether he needs to read further, delving into the details. But the most interesting thing is that even if the user closes this window on the screen, he has already learned the main idea, and therefore the entire business text. Capacious, concise, extremely informative phrases are the key to success. This indicates that it was possible to compose the text correctly. The task was completed by the author.

3. FAQ structure. The text of the letter is most typical for the publication of interviews or sections with answers to frequently asked questions. It is easy to detect logic and meaning here: in each paragraph there is only one pair - a question and an answer.

It helps a lot to organize the text of the letter by placing it at the very beginning of the content with links to information. In this case, you do not have to read a lot of extra text, and you can immediately find answers to the questions of interest to the reader.

business text

4. The structure is commercial. The main task of selling and advertising texts is to sell or promote. Need to findthe shortest possible path to a potential client's response: a call, registration, purchase of a product or order of services. It is for the sake of the result that the structure of the advertising text is created using marketing models. For example, AIDA. It consists of four steps, which set the basic qualities of the text material. It must be warned that this structure is not at all based on the meaning of the text, aesthetics or consistency. Here, the end result is the only thing that matters. The structure of the advertising text is based on this.

5. The structure is combined. This method is typical for blogs. Most often, the blogger first informs about the event (which means that the pyramidal structure of the literary text is used), and then shares his thoughts on this matter or analyzes, that is, builds the text, structuring it sequentially.

When using the combined model, one must be very careful: specific information or news mixed with analysis and homegrown philosophy creates chaos in the reader's perception.

6. The structure is chaotic. Confusion occurs when the writer does not know how to work with the material, and claims that this is his author's structure of the literary text.

text of the letter

Still, smart manipulators have figured out that a hodgepodge in the minds of customers can sometimes come in handy. Readers are skillfully disoriented in case of need to discredit people, firms, even governments - any sabotage is easily accomplished thanks to texts of a chaotic structure.

How to split into paragraphs

It should be convenient for the reader to master the meaning of the text, so the whole layer is divided into fragments that are more accessible to the eye. Too small a division, however, also scatters attention. Therefore, it is important here that the semantic structure of the text does not break, passing from paragraph to paragraph.

the meaning of the text

Paragraphs should also follow the general structure of the text, even if they differ in form and are presented in a variety of ways: as a question and answer, as a single sentence, as a single layer of text, as a list or as a quote. It must be remembered that the meaning should never be violated, even if the paragraph is somehow isolated. And it’s not good if the chosen means change throughout the work: style, language, form of presentation, despite the fact that each paragraph should be an independent semantic unit.


Here is the correct structure of the scientific text in the paragraph:

A fairly common problem that arises in the process of work is to mark the end of work. The most complete disclosure of the topic is the main task, but it cannot be put at the forefront. In order to fulfill everything planned and not to lose the topic in close, but insignificant information, a problem definition technique is used. Before starting work, you need to formulate in one sentence everything that you plan to convey to the public. Thus, the logical structure of the text will appear. Without a designated problem, any work becomes either a retelling or a competent compilation

Correctly structured literary text:

  • Ivan, driven by the wind, quicklywalks along the road. It flies so fast that even a cloud in the high sky almost stopped, waiting. What will this man who overtakes the wind say to him? And the man clenched his teeth tightly, only his jaws play on his high cheekbones, and he walks, walks. Almost running. He does not catch up with the cloud, but foolishly lost love.
  • advertising text structure

And two examples of incorrectly constructed paragraphs where the semantic structure of the text is broken:

  • You need to know when the end of work, and make a work plan. The fulfillment of the process and task of revealing the topic is necessary in order to prevent the retelling of information. It is also important to prevent compilation. It is necessary to formulate the problem and the structure of the text in one sentence. Fulfilling everything planned is the main task.
  • The cloud was waiting for Ivan on the road to talk about his lost love. But Ivan went so fast that he overtook the wind. Gritted his teeth. What will he say?

Although the last example, despite all the conceptuality, is not entirely without meaning. Here, even a certain structure of the artistic text is outlined, but not spelled out. The main thing is that the reader can get the necessary information in the most accessible form, so that the text does not tire him or confuse him.

Text analysis

It is very important to follow the rules of choosing and drawing up a structure under the dictation of the main task set by the material. The text as a meaningful work of speech should represent a consistent semantic relationship and have a design that is understandable to the eye, due to which it is formedintegrity.

The structure of the text in Russian implies the representation of activity, that is, there must be a subject and an object, the process itself, the main goal, all the means used and the final result. The exact composition of the components is reflected by the following indicators: content-structural, functional and communicative.The text is analyzed according to the parameters of micro- and macro-semantics, micro- and macrostructure. Semantics performs a communicative task in the transfer of information, and the structure determines the features of the internal organization of text units. Regularities also play their role in the interconnections of all units within the boundaries of the document as an integral, single message.

Compositional structure and internal

This is the outer side of structuring, according to which it is necessary to build sentences, paragraphs, paragraphs, subsections, sections, subchapters, chapters and so on in ascending order. The external structure of the text is only partly related to the actual organization that occurs within the text, as if building a bridge from the introduction to the epilogue.

literary text structure

You can compose a text based on knowledge of the units of its internal structure, and these are:

  • statement (sentence as such);
  • several statements with inter-phrase unity combined into one fragment both syntactically and semantically;
  • several inter-phrase fragments that make up blocks and tell the text integrity and semantic and thematic connections.

Units of syntactic and compositionalplans are always interconnected. From this follow the stylistic and style characteristics of the text. Functionality is also determined in this way - whether it is a work of art, scientific, and so on. In addition, any message has, in addition to stylistic qualities, an author's individuality.

Promotion text structure

1. Title. First of all, the reader pays attention to this element. It should be concise, but meaningful, original, accurate in meaning. A good title provides a desire to read the main text. The most successful option is chosen from several, compiled in the process of working with the text.

2. Introductory paragraph. It is no less important for the target audience, because it interests and holds attention. The content of the text is conveyed here in a fascinating and extremely clear way, but at the same time reading the article to the end is motivated. If appropriate, intrigue is quite acceptable, of course, if there is a sense of proportion. When starting to design the introductory part, you need to have a good idea of ​​​​the potential client himself, and his needs and problems, so that all their solutions are reflected in the first lines.

Some Secrets

For a long time there have been rules, most often unspoken, knowing which, you can avoid the mistakes of novice copywriters and rewriters. Professionals exclude commonplaces like "Welcome to our store" from use. Real masters do not litter with key phrases: it is said to introduce the word four times into the text, which means there will be no fifth. The message from their abundance becomes incredibly dull. Furthermore,such text instills in the reader distrust of the advertised product. "Direct" may raise the rating, but the attention of customers will be lost. A good writer will not write long "Tolstoy" compound sentences with an abundance of participial and adverbial phrases. Please note that advertising texts are most often read diagonally.

The next rule is the absence of clichés and templates. It is better to forget all sorts of established expressions completely in order to create an original text.


For every thousand characters, it is desirable to select an image. It must be strictly thematic. The image size is selected according to the task. If the picture is as informative as possible, its size is large, if not very - smaller.

Sub title and paragraph

Subheadings are the points of a detailed plan drawn up before writing the text. It is better to choose options for the second and third levels. Paragraphs carry the main content of the text, concisely displayed in the introductory paragraph. All the details of the information are written here, effective turns of speech are appropriate when indicating the merits of the advertised item. And here let the sense of proportion not leave the writer!


Properly designed and thoughtfully composed, it helps convey:

  • every single benefit of the advertised item;
  • breadth of opportunities for the product or service provided;
  • list of products offered;
  • comparative characteristics and distinctive qualities of the advertised item;

ExceptIn addition, this structural element assists in the chain of actions when placing an order or registering.

Must not be allowed when making a list:

  • using only keywords - the backbone, without verbal "meat";
  • presence of some links;
  • tightness when listing;
  • information-heavy sentences and paragraphs.


This is a necessary and extremely useful helper. It shows comparative characteristics well, progress-regression, perfectly structures the text. Of course, it is easier to make a list, but a table is clearer. It can be compiled for any reason, even just to inform who, when, where, for example, it is customary to wear cufflinks, and with what clothes, and which ones. In a separate column, showing where there is a wider choice, in which store the product is cheaper, and in which it is faster to buy this one.

Motivation to buy

And here a short but capacious list works very well, convincing that everything that is best in the world is right there with you. The main task of the final part of the article is to finally convince the client, drive away all doubts with clear arguments and smoothly lead to the only right choice. Alternatively, use an echo phrase that repeats the main idea of ​​the main text, classically completing the advertising article.

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