Human speech consists of words and sentences. They are spoken, written and read. Without sounds and letters, it will not be possible to correctly compose phrases. To become a literate person, you need to know what fluent vowels are, how they change, what happens to the word.
Use in the Russian alphabet
Letters and sounds are closely related. Letters are seen, read and written, sounds are heard and pronounced. With the help of letters, thoughts are expressed graphically, with the help of sounds - acoustically. Phonetics is a section of the Russian language that deals with the study of sounds, their pronunciation and designation. Before learning the rules for writing words, it is important to know what fluent vowels are, in which cases the replacement occurs.
Consonant sounds characterize the occurrence of an obstacle in pronunciation. Vowels, on the contrary, are its absence. They are sung, stretched, chanted, with all the power of the voice. A vowel and a consonant make up a syllable. A word can have one, two, three or more syllables: door, mo-lo-ko, card-ta. All sounds in Russian are divided into vowels and consonants. First grouprepresented by ten letters and six sounds. There are letters that, depending on the location in the word, represent one or two sounds.
The appearance of the rule of fluent vowels
Fluent vowels are called because they drop out when changing a word or appear in a word where they were not there before. From the point of view of linguistics, there is an alternation of vowels with zero sound if a new word appears or the form of the former one changes. This can be seen in the example of such words: stump - stump, ditch - ditch. There is a fluent sound in different morphemes: in the root, suffix or prefix. It happens in the noun:
- Masculine: town - town.
- Feminine: governess - governess.
- Neutral gender: sun - suns.
- Qualitative adjectives: hungry - hungry.
To understand what fluent vowels are, you need to pay attention to the rule of stress placement. If it falls on a vowel, it is pronounced drawling with an accent. When absent, it is less clearly pronounced. That is, in an unstressed position, the position is weak, in a shock position it is strong.
Rough vowel forms
In modern Russian, with the help of such sounds, it is easier to pronounce several consonants in a row. This causes the sound to appear and then disappear. In writing, the rules will help you avoid mistakes.
Spelling is found in nouns, adjectives and verbs. They differ in inclinationnumber and case, have the suffix -ok, -er, -ets. For example, a bag - a bag, a sip - a sip, a sister - sisters, a duck - ducks, a ring - rings.
It's easy to find out what fluent vowels are. It is important to pay attention to the sound composition of words. Graphic recording is called transcription. Follow the basic rules:
- Softness is indicated by an apostrophe: [s] - [s'].
- Long colon: Highway [sha:e].
Stress is also placed over the vowel. When the form of a word changes, a new one is formed. The sounds are also replaced. This process is called alternation. The replacement of sounds [o] and [e] occurs with zero. That is, in the word at the place of the gap, when the word changes, one of these sounds appears or disappears. Fluent vowels "o" and "e" are pronounced in such words: sleep - sleep, town - town.
Examples of fluent vowels in various morphemes
Vowel fluency is observed in different words. They are in one of the cases, singular or plural. Among the commonly used pairs are: sleep - sleep, forehead - forehead, ice - ice, drop - drops, saber - sabers.
Examples of words with fluent vowels:
- Linen - linen.
- Plank - plank.
- Jacket - jackets.
- Fire is fire.
- Day - days.
As an example, quality adjectives with fluent vowels are given: funny - funny, sad - sad, cunning - cunning. When new words are formed, vowels appear or disappear: a window is a window,one hundred - one hundred.
In some cases, the prefix ends with a consonant, and there are several of them at the root. Then, to dilute, a vowel sound is added to the prefix: ascend - sunrise, drive away - drive away. Runaway vowels can be in a suffix. As an example, pay attention to such words: hairstyle - hairstyles, petal - petals, frog - frogs.
Rules for writing in roots
In the process of forming or changing words, one sound is replaced by another. The rules will help in the correct use of letters in writing and sounds in oral speech. This can be seen in the example:
- o/a: argue - challenge;
- o/e/s: collect - collect - collect.
If a sound appears in one morpheme and disappears in another, the sound alternates with zero. Runaway vowels at the root of the word appear or disappear: sleep - sleep, town - town. Sound exists in forms where there is no ending. These words include: father - father, smart - smart.
Some words are on the list of exceptions. They need to be remembered. Here the rule does not work, so instead of the letter "e" put "I" or "and": a hare - a hare, a beehive - a beehive, a judge - judges.
Rough vowels occur in stressed and unstressed positions. The rules of use will help you write correctly and express your own thoughts. Studying the setting of fluent vowels is necessary for declension of nouns and making sentences in various forms.