The existence of living beings on Earth, including people, is impossible without breathing. By consuming oxygen from the environment, a person exhales carbon dioxide. In theory, this vital gas should have ended. However, the air masses are constantly replenished with them. Such a reaction becomes possible, because when breathing, plants release oxygen O2. All plants are autotrophs, converting the chemical elements of the earth's crust into components of wildlife, releasing oxygen. Therefore, without their participation, the presence of biotic matter on Earth would be in question.
The concept and factors of photosynthesis
By consuming the light of the sun, plants release oxygen through photosynthesis. At the same time, they produce various carbon-containing elements that are consumed by biological beings.
Representatives of the flora contain a pigment - chlorophyll, which turns them green. This component captures the radiation of the sun. Thanks to this, photosynthesis occurs in plants, officially discovered in 1771. The term itself originatedlater - in 1877.
Mandatory factor in the course of the reaction is the absorption of sunlight or artificially created light by chlorophyll. However, natural ultraviolet waves emanating from the sun have the most beneficial effect on living organisms. In temperate latitudes, the activation of photosynthesis in the natural environment falls on the warm season, since the length of the daylight hours is longer, and the plants also have green shoots and leaves that wither in autumn.
To implement this complex transformation, in addition to solar radiation and chlorophyll, CO2, H2O and mineral elements are required, which are mainly extracted from the soil through roots.
Place of implementation
Photosynthesis takes place inside plant cells, in small organelles - chloroplasts. They contain the pigment chlorophyll, which gives them their green color.
This difficult transformation is carried out mainly in green leaves, as well as in green fruits, shoots. The highest content of chlorophyll is found in the leaves, since a large area allows you to absorb a significant amount of light, therefore, there is more energy for the reaction.
How is the process?
The process of converting substances in plants that produce oxygen is rather complicated. First, the plant captures the rays of the sun with the help of chlorophyll. At the same time, it sucks water from the soil with its roots, which contains various minerals, consumes CO2 from the air and water.Chlorophyll converts H2O, trace elements and CO2 into organic compounds. At this moment, plants release oxygen into the atmosphere, and some goes to breathe.
Photosynthesis includes two interdependent, but completely different phases: light and dark. The first phase is carried out only in the light, without which it is impossible. For the dark, the constant presence of CO2.
The absolute condition for the implementation of processes at this stage is the presence of light, activating chlorophyll. In this case, the latter splits the water molecule into H2 and O2. Everything happens inside the chloroplasts, in membrane-limited compartments - thylakoids. As a result, the organic compound ATP is synthesized, a kind of energy source in biological processes. There comes a time when plants release oxygen.
It is carried out in the stroma of chloroplasts and is called dark, because here the processes can go on without the presence of light, that is, around the clock.
First, there is a mandatory constant absorption and fixation of carbon dioxide from the environment. Then a series of transformations takes place, ending with the formation of glucose (natural sugar), amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol and other important organic compounds. The energy for reactions to take place is taken from ATP and NADP-H2 created in the light phase.
As representatives of living matter, plants breathe.Moreover, absorbing and releasing both O2 and carbon dioxide. Only in plants, during the process of photosynthesis, CO2 is consumed and O2 is released. It is noteworthy that much more oxygen is given off than is consumed for breathing. Consequently, in the total amount in the light, the plant mainly releases oxygen by absorbing CO2. At the same time, the process of respiration also takes place, but the consumption of O2 and the removal of carbon dioxide take place on a much smaller scale.
As a rule, in the dark, plants absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide, that is, they breathe. As such, plants do not have a respiratory system: they absorb oxygen from the entire surface, mainly from the leaves.
Plants that release oxygen in the dark
Most of the plants energetically give off oxygen in the light, and without it, on the contrary, they consume it. For this reason, it is usually not recommended to put them in the bedroom. But for some plants, everything happens in reverse.
For example, Kalanchoe, Benjamin's ficus and orchids dynamically give O2 at any time of the day. The plants that release oxygen at night include aloe, which disinfects, among other things, the air from microbes and draws out harmful substances from it. Probably everyone knows about the beneficial properties of this unique succulent.
The strongest purifier of the environment is sansevieria, which helps to strengthen the immune system of people. This species also includes geranium, capable of destroying anybacteria and even some viruses. It has antidepressant properties: its smell can relieve neurosis, insomnia, stress and nervous tension.
The importance of photosynthesis for our planet
According to scientists, the planet Earth was formed from the solar nebula, and initially there was no oxygen in its atmosphere. The emergence of such a vital gas was possible precisely due to photosynthesis. As a result, oxygen respiration appeared, which is inherent in almost all living beings. Oxygen contributed to the formation of the planet's natural defense against ultraviolet radiation from the sun - the ozone layer. This circumstance favored evolution: the release of living organisms from the ocean to land.
It is also very important that plants that produce oxygen also consume carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Excess CO2 causes a greenhouse effect that is bad for the climate and living things.
In the absence of photosynthesis, there would be an overabundance of CO2 in the planet's atmosphere. As a result, most living organisms would not be able to breathe and would die. Photosynthesis determines the stability of the gas composition of the Earth's atmospheric shell. Trees are the lungs of our planet. Therefore, it is very important to protect them from deforestation and fires, and plant more vegetation in settlements.
The colossal value of photosynthesis lies in the fact that various organic compounds arise from simple mineral elements. It turns out that everythinglife on Earth owes its existence to this amazing process.
In addition, plants are eaten by a huge number of animals. Organic compounds created and accumulated by plants are also food and a source of energy. Over billions of years, large deposits of organic matter (oil, coal, and others) have accumulated in the bowels of the earth.
People use the products of photosynthesis not only in food and treatment, but also in economic activities as a building material and various raw materials.