It's no secret that human speech is not only a way to communicate with each other. First of all, it is a psychophysical portrait of the person himself. By the way certain people express themselves, one can immediately tell about their level of education, worldview, passions and hobbies. The main period of the formation of correct speech occurs in preschool age. At this time, the child is actively exploring the world.
When should I start?
Within the framework of the new standard (FSES), a lot of attention is paid to the development of speech in preschool children. At the age of 3, with the normal development of a child, his vocabulary should be about 1200 words, and for a 6-year-old - about 4000.
All specialists in preschool educational institutions (DOE) are working hard on the development of the speech of their pupils. Everyone has the same goal, but everyone uses their own methods, depending on the methodology chosen in the preschool educational institution. This or that method of developing the speech of preschool children provides an opportunity for educatorstake advantage of the successful experience of professionals working on this issue.
Who teaches children and what?
By studying this subject, the future specialist receives theoretical knowledge about the development of children's speech by age categories, and also gets acquainted with various methods of conducting classes in a preschool educational institution, according to the age group of students.
Every person knows from the lessons of history how a person's speech was formed. Its construction went from simple to complex. At first it was sounds, then separate words, and only then words began to be combined into sentences. Every child goes through all these stages of speech formation in his life. How correct and literary rich his speech will be depends on the parents, educators and the society that surrounds the baby. The teacher-educator is the main exponent for the use of speech in everyday life.
Goals and objectives of speech formation
Properly set goals and objectives for the development of the speech of preschool children help teachers to work on this problem as efficiently as possible.
The main goal of the work on the development of the speech of preschool children is the formation of the child's oral speech and his skillscommunication with others based on the knowledge of the literary language of their people.
The tasks, the solution of which will help in achieving the goal, are as follows:
- education of the sound culture of the child's speech;
- enrichment, consolidation and activation of the child's vocabulary;
- improving the grammatical correct speech of the child;
- development of coherent speech of the child;
- raising a child's interest in the artistic word;
- teaching a child their native language.
Methods for the development of speech in the preschool educational institution
Any technique, regardless of the subject, is always constructed from simple to complex. And it is impossible to learn how to perform complex tasks if there is no skill in performing simpler ones. At the moment, there are several methods for the development of speech. Most often, two methods are used in preschool educational institutions.
Methodology for the development of speech of preschool children L.P. Fedorenko, G.A. Fomicheva, V.K. Lotareva provides an opportunity to theoretically learn about the development of children's speech from a very early age (2 months) to seven years, and also contains practical recommendations for educators. This benefit can be used not only by a specialist, but also by any caring parent.
BookUshakova O.S., Strunina E.M. "Methodology for the Development of Speech of Preschool Children" is a manual for educators. Here, aspects of the development of speech of children by age groups of a preschool institution are widely disclosed, the development of classes is given.
In these methods for the development of children's speech, everything begins with sound classes, where educators teach and monitor the purity and correctness of the pronunciation of sounds. In addition, only a specially trained person can know at what age and what sounds a child should be given. For example, you should try to start pronouncing the sound “r” only at the age of 3, of course, if the child has not found it before on his own, but this does not mean at all that work has not been done with this sound before. In order for the baby to learn to pronounce the sound “r” in a timely and correct manner, the educators carry out preparatory work, namely, they do tongue gymnastics with children in the form of a game.
Game is the main way to develop speech
In the modern world, the theory and methodology of the development of speech of preschool children speak of one thing, that the main way is considered to be playing with a child. This is based on mental development, namely the emotional level of development, if the child is passive, then he will have problems with speech. And in order to encourage the child to emotions, because they are the impetus for speech, a game comes to the rescue. Objects familiar to the baby become interesting again. For example, the game "roll the wheel". Here first the teacher rollsthe wheel from the hill, saying: “The round wheel rolled down the hill and then rolled along the path.” Children usually enjoy it. Then the teacher offers to ride the wheel to one of the guys and again pronounces the same words.
Children, without knowing it, begin to repeat. There are a lot of such games in the methods for preschool educational institutions, they are all diverse. At an older age, classes are already held in the form of role-playing games, here communication is no longer a teacher-child, but a child-child. For example, these are games such as "daughters-mothers", "game in the profession" and others. The development of speech in preschool children in play activities proceeds most effectively.
Causes of poor speech development in a preschool child
One of the most common causes of poor speech development in a child is a lack of attention from adults, especially if the child is naturally calm by nature. Most often, such children from a very young age sit in a crib or playpen, showered with toys, and only occasionally do parents, busy with their own affairs, go into the room to see if everything is in order.
Another reason is also the fault of adults. This is a monosyllabic communication with a child. In the form of such statements as "move away", "do not interfere", "do not touch", "give". If the child does not hear complex sentences, then there is nothing to demand from him, he simply has no one to take an example from. After all, it is not at all difficult to tell a child “give me this toy” or “don’t touch, herehot”, and already how many words will be added to his dictionary.
The thin line between speech development and the psychological development of the baby
If the above two reasons for the poor development of speech in a child are completely excluded, and speech develops poorly, then it is necessary to look for reasons in his mental he alth. From an early age to school, most children are unable to think abstractly. Therefore, it is necessary to teach the baby to speak using some specific examples or associations. The methodology for the development of speech in preschool children is based on the studied psychological development of children. There is a very fine line between language development and mental development. At the age of 3, the child begins to develop logic and imagination. And often parents are concerned about the appearance of fantasies, they begin to accuse the child of lying. In no case should this be done, because the child can withdraw into himself and stop talking. There is no need to be afraid of fantasies, they just need to be directed in the right direction.
How to help a child if speech develops poorly?
Of course, every child is different. And if a child by the age of four is expressed only in separate words, not even connected into simple sentences, then additional specialists should be called for help. The methodology for the development of speech in preschool age provides for the inclusion in the education process of such specialists as a teacher-speech therapist and a teacher-psychologist. Such children are most often assigned to a speech therapy group, where they are de alt with more intensively. There is no need to be afraid of speech therapy groups, because how much willjoy in a child when he can speak coherently and logically correctly.
Uneducated parents are a source of poor development of children
Methodology for the development of speech of preschool children is a reference book not only for educators, but also for parents. Because the lack of education of parents leads to poor development of children. Someone demands too much from a child, while someone, on the contrary, lets everything take its course. In this case, close contact between parents and the teacher is necessary, it is even possible to hold thematic parent meetings. After all, it is better to prevent mistakes than to correct them later. And if you act correctly, jointly and in concert, then by the end of the preschool educational institution, the child will certainly have excellent literary speech with the necessary vocabulary, which in the future, at the next stages of education, will only become deeper and wider.