Phosphatidylcholines (P.), whose formula is shown in the picture below, are a class of phospholipids that include choline as a head group.
They are the main component of biological membranes. Can be easily obtained from a variety of readily available sources such as egg yolk or soybeans, from which they are extracted mechanically or chemically using hexane. They are also part of the group of lecithins, yellow-brownish fatty substances found in the tissues of animals and plants. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (eg, lecithin) is the main component of pulmonary surfactant and is often used in the L/S ratio to calculate fetal lung maturity. Although these substances are found in all plant and animal cells, they are absent from the membranes of most bacteria, including Escherichia coli. The purified form is commercially available.
The name "lecithin" was originally derived from the Greek "lecithin" (λεκιθος, meaning egg yolk) by Théodore Nicolas Gobley, a mid-19th century French chemist and pharmacist who applied it to egg yolk phosphatidylcholine. It was he who identified in 1847.
Gobley finally fully described lecithin from a chemical structural point of view in 1874. In some contexts, the terms phosphatidylcholine/lecithin are used interchangeably. However, lecithin extracts consist of a mixture of F. and other compounds. It is also used along with sodium taurocholate to simulate biorelevant feeding and fasting environments in dissolution studies of highly lipophilic drugs.
Phosphatidylcholine formula is a major component of cell membranes and pulmonary surfactant and is more commonly found in the exoplasmic or outer shell of the cell membrane.
F. also plays a role in membrane-mediated cell signaling and PCTP activation of other enzymes.
Phospholipid phosphatidylcholine consists of a group of choline and glycerophosphoric acid with various fatty acids. It is usually a saturated fatty acid (it can be palmitic or hexadecanoic acid, H3C-(CH2) 14-COOH; margarine, identified by Gobley in egg yolk, or heptadecanoic H3C-(CH2) 15-COOH, which also belongs to this class) or unsaturated fatty acid (oleic, or 9Z-octadecenoic, as in Gobley's original egg yolk lecithin).
Phospholipase D catalyzes the hydrolysis of the phosphatidylcholine formula to form phosphatidic acid (PA), releasing the soluble choline head group into the cytosol.
F. is a neutral lipid, but it carries an electric dipole moment of about 10 D. The vibrational dynamics of phosphatidylcholine and its waters of hydration has recently been calculated from first principles.
F. is a vital substance contained in every cell of the human body. Some researchers have used severe oxidative damage mutant mouse models as an accelerated aging model to investigate the possible role of phosphatidylcholine structural formula supplementation as a way to slow down aging-related processes and improve brain function and memory capacity in dementia. However, a 2009 systematic review of human clinical trials found that there was insufficient evidence to support the use of lecithin or F in patients with dementia. The study found that a modest benefit cannot be ruled out until further large-scale studies are conducted.
Research has explored the potential benefits of the structural formula of phosphatidylcholine for liver repair. The results are in animals and no clinical evidence suggests a benefit to human he alth. One study showed the curative effect of F. on mice with hepatitis A, B, and C. The introduction of F. in chronic activehepatitis has led to a significant reduction in disease activity in rodents.
Some organizations are promoting the use of injected F., also known as injection lipolysis, claiming that the procedure can break down fat cells and thus serve as an alternative to liposuction. Whereas early experiments did not show any amount of lipolysis even remotely comparable to liposuction. Injections of phosphatidylcholine to a small number of patients have been reported to reduce or completely eliminate many types of lipomas, although some of them actually increase in size. There were side effects that went away without any complications. Long-term studies are considered necessary to evaluate efficacy. Dr. Patrick Tracy has successfully used F. and deoxcholate in the treatment of infraorbital fat pads.
Phase IIa / b clinical trials conducted at the Heidelberg University Hospital showed that the purified delayed-release phosphatidylcholine is an anti-inflammatory agent and a surface hydrophobic agent. Has promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
In a 2011 report, microbial catabolites of phosphatidylcholine were associated with increased atherosclerosis in mice through the production of choline, trimethylamine oxide, and betaine.
Although there are more pathways for F. biosynthesis, one of them is predominant ineukaryotes. It involves a condensation reaction between diacylglycerol (DAG) and cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicoline) mediated by the enzyme diacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase. Another notable pathway in some tissues (mainly the liver) is the stepwise methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a methyl group donor.
Phosphatidylcholine is a key component of our cells. The supplement may improve mental, liver and intestinal he alth, protect nerves and improve memory. F. injections are also used to reduce fat. Learn more about its benefits, dosage and side effects.
Phosphatidylcholine levels may decrease with age. For example, in the brain there is a decrease of 10% between 40 and 100 years old.
Because choline is essential for the production of phosphatidylcholine, low levels of choline can limit its production. Its deficiency can reduce the level of phosphatidylcholine in the liver, which leads to liver failure. Phosphatidylcholine is also responsible for the production of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) [R, R].
Low F levels are associated with memory loss and Alzheimer's disease. A study (DB-RCT) of 80 he althy young adults found that supplementation with the lipolytic phosphatidylcholine improved memory.
F. increases brain levels of choline and acetylcholine, improves memory, and protects the brain in mice with dementia.
Very low levels of phosphatidylcholine deoxycholate can causeliver damage and even death in mice. Animal studies have shown that F may promote liver regeneration.
Low levels of choline and phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylserine may cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans.
A study (DB-RCT) using a combination treatment of milk thistle (silybin) and F. showed a significant improvement in liver enzymes, the appearance of insulin resistance and increased functionality of liver tissues in 179 patients with non-alcoholic fatty organ disease.
Choline supplementation increases the phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanol (PE) ratio in the body. This may prevent progression of the disease and increase the chance of survival after liver surgery.
A study (DB-RCT) in 176 patients showed that F helped treat chronic hepatitis C (but not B).
Another study (DB-RCT) on 15 patients showed that phosphatidylcholine treatment helped treat chronic hepatitis B.
However, F was not effective in treating acute viral hepatitis in a study of 22 patients.
Fat breakdown involves the breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. F. increases the production of the PPAR gamma receptor, which is responsible for the breakdown of fats.
Injection and synthesis of phosphatidylcholine directly into adipose tissue can cause fat breakdown and can be used as an alternative to surgery. They can also help with lipomas, benign tumors caused by fat accumulation.[R, R, R].
A study (RCT) of 13 women found that phosphatidylcholine injections reduced body fat and could be used in a weight loss intervention.
Phosphatidylcholine treatment reduced inflammation and white blood cell response associated with arthritis in rats.
Dietary F partially eliminated symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in mice and reduced inflammation.
Phosphatidylcholine prenatal supplementation may promote normal fetal brain function and reduce the risk of mental illness.
In a study (RCT) of 100 pregnant women, F supplementation ensured proper fetal brain development and prevented a delay in certain areas of brain development in fetuses that were genetically susceptible to schizophrenia.
A case study in a bipolar boy found that supplementation with F improved sleep and helped manage symptoms of hypomania (a mild form of mania that is a period of euphoria or high arousal).
In one study, high levels of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis in the white matter of the brain were associated with bipolar disorder. However, another study of 104 adults found no change in F levels between people with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or he althy people.
Four studies (DB-RCT) of 316 patients with ulcerative colitis found that phosphatidylcholine supplementation reduced disease severity and improved quality of life. It also reduceddependence on corticosteroids in patients taking them.
Study (RCT) of 345 he althy subjects showed that F. protects the stomach from damage caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Phosphatidylcholine has also been determined to reduce the toxicity of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and increase their therapeutic properties in rats.
Injection of F. directly into fatty sprouts can cause inflammation or tissue death (necrosis). The safety of long-term use is unclear. Pregnant women and people with heart and kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetes or hypothyroidism, infections, active or pre-existing autoimmune diseases should avoid injecting phosphatidylcholine directly into fat growth.
Byproducts of dietary F include choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine, which increase the risk of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), coronary heart disease, stroke and other heart disease. Basically, TMAO increases the risk of heart disease, but choline and betaine produce TMAO. However, the link between TMAO and CVD is controversial and is still debated in the scientific literature. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation may increase blood triglyceride levels. However, in 26 he althy men, F. reduced homocysteine levels, which are a potential risk factor for heart disease.
There are no human trials to confirm some of the benefits of F supplements. Further clinical trials are needed toconfirm its favor.
Phosphatidylcholine can be administered in capsules, tablets and injections. Various oral doses of F have been used in clinical studies ranging from 0.5 g to 4 g per day for 12 weeks. Phosphatidylcholine injections for fat reduction contain 40 to 60cc
Influence on the liver
One user reported that using F for several years completely changed his liver, and returned high values to normal. Another user reported that within almost two months, belly fat decreased significantly.
Another user, in his review, wrote that he was taken to the ambulance twice due to mesotherapy using this substance.
Some take phosphatidylcholine to improve memory. And very pleased with the results.