Having overcome many stages of development, humanity lives in an era of humanism, which is expressed, among other things, in a loyal attitude towards citizens with disabilities or with existing physical disabilities. In order for these citizens not to feel isolated, but to be complete, a lot of efforts are applied in modern society. The normal infusion of people with disabilities into society since childhood is largely facilitated by such a science as special pedagogy. What kind of direction this is, what are its foundations, methods and tasks, we will consider in this article.
The concept, foundations and purpose of special pedagogy
For several decades, the problems of studying, educating and educating children with disabilities in physical development have been considered within the framework of defectology. Defectological studies on deviations in the development of the psyche were carried out from clinical, pedagogical and psychologicalpositions.
And only in the nineties of the twentieth century began the development of independent scientific disciplines: special psychology and special pedagogy. The latter began to be considered as a separate branch of the science of education, interconnected, first of all, with medicine and special psychology.
Formulating the concept of special pedagogy, we can say that this is a science that studies the causes, patterns, essence and trends of the processes of development of the personality of a child who needs specialized methods of education and upbringing because of his limited he alth.
Special pedagogy is a part of general pedagogy, the purpose of which is to develop theoretical and practical aspects of special (special) education, education for the socialization and self-realization of persons with disabilities in mental and physical development. The usual educational conditions for them are difficult or impossible. The basis of special pedagogy is the goal of achieving maximum independence of persons with disabilities and their independent life with a high quality of socialization and the presence of prerequisites for self-realization. This is very important for today's society.
Often, special pedagogy is also called correctional. However, today this term is not considered ethical. The concept of "correctional pedagogy" includes the correction of a person or his qualities. Each person is individual and original, society must recognize and take into account one or another of its features, mustoffer help to such a person (medical, social, psychological), but do not correct him.
This science can be divided into school, preschool and even pedagogy for adults, where correctional and educational work is used in the educational and educational processes aimed at reducing or overcoming developmental defects. Special pedagogy is present throughout the life of people with developmental disabilities.
Objectives and principles
The tasks of special pedagogy imply the adaptation of persons with developmental problems in a normal social environment and are divided into theoretical and practical. Theoretical tasks include:
- Development of methodological and theoretical foundations for special education and training.
- Development of principles, methods of teaching, maintenance and upbringing of children with developmental disabilities.
- Exploring existing methods of educators and education systems for persons with special educational needs.
- Research, development and implementation of these methods for the prevention and correction of developmental abnormalities in children.
The practical tasks of special pedagogy include:
- Organization of the process in special educational institutions of various types.
- Development of special pedagogical solutions, forms and technologies.
- Development of educational and developing correctional programs.
- Development of career guidance programs that promote social and labor adaptation and integration of persons with developmental disabilities.
- Generalization and analysis of advanced special pedagogical experience.
The principles of special pedagogy are primarily the correctional orientation of education and training, as well as:
- An integrated approach to diagnosing and realizing the learning potential inherent in children.
- The principle of the earliest psychological, medical and pedagogical correction of violations.
- The principle of a differentiated approach in the education and upbringing of children with developmental disabilities.
- Principle of continuity of education of children in the preschool, school and professional period.
Object, subject, methods and industries
The subject of this science is a person (child) with disabilities or developmental disabilities and in need of special conditions for upbringing and education. The object of special pedagogy is a direct educational process that satisfies the needs for corrective upbringing and education of such a person (child). What is used to achieve these goals?
Methods of pedagogy in special education and upbringing are conversation, observation, questioning, experiment, testing. Psychological and pedagogical documentation, the result or product of the child's activity, and more are also being studied.
Modern special pedagogy is a diversified science. It is constantly evolving. The area of special pedagogy includes such subspecies as deaf-, typhlo-, oligophreno-typhlo-surdopedagogy, speech therapy. As well as pedagogyapplied to persons with disorders of the musculoskeletal system or with emotional-volitional disorders, pathopsychology, special psychology (consists of sections by types of disorders).
All the listed branches of special pedagogy are completely independent and developed separately. They represent areas of practical and scientific knowledge differentiated by age.
During the twentieth century, there was a large practice of special education for children with disabilities in the development of school age, as a result of which the school period is the most developed. Preschool pedagogy is less studied, since the issues of education within the preschool period (especially at the age from birth to three years) have been actively studied only in recent years. The problems of special education and psychological and social support for young people with disabilities and adults with disabilities have also been little studied.
Deaf Pedagogy and Typhlopedagogy
Deaf education is a section of special pedagogy that accumulates a system of scientific methods and knowledge about the training and education of persons with complete or partial hearing loss. This branch includes the theory of upbringing and education of children with hearing impairments of preschool and school age, the history of the development of deaf pedagogy, private methods and deaf technology.
Sound technology can be called technical means for correcting or compensating for hearing capabilities, as well as the instrument-making industry that develops thesetechnical means. Surdo technology helps to increase the effectiveness of training and education of children with hearing impairments, expands the range of professional activities for adults suffering from hearing impairments, facilitates and simplifies their life, everyday life and communication.
Typhlopedagogy is a science that develops methods for teaching and educating people with partial or complete visual impairment. In educational institutions for the visually impaired and the blind, the process of their education is achieved by modern means of relief writing, manuals that are perceived tactilely, and the residual vision of students is also optimally used (large print of textbooks and highlighted main parts of the illustration, special lined notebooks and other methods that provide for the preservation of residual or low vision). The quality of education in such schools largely depends on typhlography and typhlotechnics.
Tyflotechnics is a branch in instrument making that is engaged in the production and design of tiflodevices for persons with complete or partial lack of vision in order to compensate or correct visual impairments, as well as to restore or develop visual abilities. The development of tiflopribors is carried out on the basis of knowledge of ophthalmology, physiology, tiflopedagogy, optics and other sciences. Tiflotechnics is divided into educational, household and industrial.
Typhlosurdopedagogy and oligophrenopedagogy
Typhlo-surdopedagogy is a section of special pedagogy about teaching deaf-blind children and adults. The processes of education andThe upbringing of such children is based on a combination of all the means of the sciences of deaf and typhlopedagogy. Training relies on the sensory abilities of deafblind people.
Oligophrenopedagogy is a section of special pedagogy that develops issues and problems of training, education and methods for correcting the psychophysical development of mentally retarded children and solving the issues of their labor training. Oligophrenopedagogy as a science develops the problems of diagnosing mental weakness and backwardness, in every possible way improves training and the principles of organizing the educational process. One of the main areas of research in this science is a comprehensive study of mentally weak and retarded children, the definition of optimal pedagogical methods for correcting deficiencies in cognitive ability for its normal social integration and labor adaptation.
Oligophrenopedagogy is based on neurophysiological, educational and psychological research. This is done for the extremely important identification of the mental deficiencies of the child in the early stages with the possibility of applying the methods of preschool pedagogy. The learning process for such children consists in classes in native speech, primitive counting, acquiring communication skills and self-service.
Speech therapy (from the Greek logos - "word") - the science of violations in speech, how to detect, eliminate and prevent them through special training and education. Mechanisms, causes, symptoms, structure of speech disorders and corrective effects - all this is studiedspeech therapy. The nature of speech disorders, their manifestation and severity can be different, as well as the impact of speech disorders on the state of the psyche and development of the child. Often, such disorders negatively affect communication with others, and can also interfere with the development of the cognitive potential of the child, who may develop isolation and self-doubt.
In addition to deviations in speech, speech therapy classes determine the level of lexical development, literacy in written speech, the correctness of the sound composition of the word, and so on. It has been established that the mastery of literate written speech directly depends on the presence of violations in pronunciation. Also, special attention is paid to the connection of the child's psyche with his speech activity, where the task of speech therapy is to correct speech defects that negatively affect the child's academic performance, behavior and psyche. The results of speech therapy research are very important for psychology, general and special pedagogy. For example, the achievements of speech therapy classes are widely used in teaching foreign languages.
Musculoskeletal and psycho-emotional disorders
Recently, the problem of medical, social, psychological and pedagogical assistance to children with congenital or acquired injuries of the musculoskeletal system has become more and more frequent. According to statistics, there are about 5-7% of children with such disorders, among which about ninety percent are people with cerebral palsy. Some children do not havedeviations of a mental nature, they do not require special conditions for education and training. But all children with disorders of the musculoskeletal system need special living conditions.
The goal of upbringing and education of persons with disorders of the musculoskeletal system is comprehensive medical, psychological, pedagogical and social assistance to ensure maximum adaptation and socialization, general and vocational training. Of great importance in this assistance are an integrated approach and coordination of actions of specialists of various profiles, contributing to a positive worldview.
The training and education of people with deviations in the emotional-volitional sphere has a slightly different focus. Often here attention is paid not to the physiological he alth of the child, but to his behavior and psycho-emotional life. Disorders of the sphere of the psyche and emotions can be of varying degrees and of different directions. The purpose of educational and educational methods in working with such children is to identify, as well as partially or completely overcome emotional and psychological problems.
Special psychology and pathopsychology
As you know, psychology studies the subtle human mental organization, mental phenomena, processes and states. According to the principle of development in psychology, there is a general division into normal mental development and abnormal.
Special psychology is a section of psychology and special pedagogy that studies people with characteristic deviations frommental norm. Deviations can be congenital or acquired. On the basis of these studies, ways of compensating for defects of a mental nature, the system of training and education of persons with such anomalies are determined. Special psychology is divided into the psychology of the visually impaired or the blind - tiflopsychology, the hearing impaired - deaf psychology, the feeble-minded - oligophrenopsychology, and other categories of persons with deviations in speech and mental development.
Pathopsychology studies disorders in the development of a child's mental life. Pathopsychology, especially children's, is a science that belongs to the border areas of research. On the one hand, this section is related to medical psychiatry and psychology; on the other hand, it is based on knowledge of the psychology of general, pedagogical and personality psychology. A child's learning ability is examined after analyzing his abilities in speech therapy and defectology.
For the correct interpretation of the results of the pathopsychological examination of the child, they are compared with the indicators of the age norms of he althy children. The role of adults who organize the upbringing and education of a child often becomes decisive in his future life: the possibility of compensating for a defect or its deepening directly depends on the quality of pedagogical training.
The initial stages of the formation of special pedagogy in Europe and Russia
The system of special education for any state is a reflection of the culture and value orientations of society. And each stage of the historical development of mankind determines the period of development of special pedagogy and the attitudesociety and the state to people with developmental disabilities. Mankind has gone through five stages in the path of public attitude towards people with disabilities.
The first long time period (from the eighth century BC to the twelfth century AD) leads the attitude of the society of Western European countries from aggression and complete rejection to the realization of the need for guardianship and charity of the crippled and disabled. In Russia, this stage is associated with Christianization and the emergence of monastic cloisters for the disabled during the 9th-11th centuries.
The second period gradually brings humanity to the realization of the possibility of teaching blind and deaf children, the first special educational institutions appear after the experience of individual learning. In the West, this period covers from the 12th to the 18th century, and in Russia this stage came later, but passed faster - from the 17th to the 18th century.
Development of science in Europe and Russia in the twentieth century
The third stage is characterized by the recognition of the rights of children with disabilities to education. In the West, this stage covers the period from the eighteenth to the beginning of the twentieth century and demonstrates a radically changed attitude towards the education of abnormally developing children against the backdrop of compulsory primary education. In Russia, after the revolutions and the formation of a socialist system, the system of correctional pedagogy became part of the educational state system. Boarding schools are being created, where children with disabilities are actually isolated from society.
At the fourth stage, a differentiated system of specialpedagogy, however, this process is hindered by the Second World War, after the horrors of which Human Rights were recognized as the highest value. In Europe, in the 50-70s of the twentieth century, there were processes of improving the legislative base for special education and differentiation of its types. In Russia, by the nineties, this period is considered incomplete, since special educational institutions were closed from society, and only the state de alt with all issues, without developing new laws to protect people with disabilities.
The fifth stage provides equal rights and equal opportunities. In European countries, from the seventies to the present day, people with disabilities have been integrated into the society. At this time, the fundamental UN declarations on the rights of the disabled and mentally retarded are adopted, and large-scale integration (with which not all Europeans agree) of people with various he alth disabilities into society begins.
The complexity of the transition in our country to the fifth period is due to the need to develop our own Russian model, which would not completely deny the existence of boarding schools, but would gradually master the ways of integration and interaction between structures of special and general education.
So, above we examined in detail many aspects of correctional pedagogy, the concept, object, subject of such training, principles and methods. Also, attention was paid to the development of this industry in Russia and in Europe. The educational system continues to develop, so in the near future we can expect not only abroad, but also in our homelandimproving teaching methods and techniques for children with special needs.