Tmutarakan stone: history, description, photo

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Tmutarakan stone: history, description, photo
Tmutarakan stone: history, description, photo
Anonim

Cities covered with mysteries, myths and legends have always attracted historians. So, Heinrich Schliemann, relying only on Homer's Iliad, was able to find Troy. And Arthur Evans in Crete was lucky to find the legendary Knossos. Russian historians have long been interested in the search for the legendary and mysterious Tmutarakan. But unlike Schliemann and Evans, scientists from Tsarist Russia had other tasks - to prove their involvement in the ancient history of the Northern Black Sea region with the help of historical artifacts.

Tmutarakan stone photo

Hermitage relic

Currently, the famous Tmutarakansky stone, a landmark monument of Russian history, is stored in the Hermitage. There is a beautiful old Russian inscription on the stone. It talks about measuring the distance from Tmutarakan to Korchev (Kerch) in 1068. This inscription itself was found in 1792 and served as proof of the existence of Tmutarakan. Until that moment, evidence of the Tmutarakan principality was only on paper. About the exact location of the discovery of the stone so farthere are legends, and it is not known exactly where he was found. According to one theory, the find was discovered on the territory of Phanagoria, according to other evidence, this happened on the territory of a fortress near the sea. The location of the historical artifact has changed several times. Initially, until 1803, it was located on the territory of Taman. After that, the stone was transported to the Kerch Museum. And from 1851 to this day, the relic has been kept in St. Petersburg within the walls of the Hermitage.

Historical significance of the Tmutarakan stone

The discovery of the stone was of great historical importance at that time. Catherine II was very sensitive to the study of the history of the Russian state. The Empress herself was interested in history and gradually introduced the fashion for antiquity. Unfortunately, the first written sources in Russia date back only to the 11th century. The lack of earlier historical evidence is easily explained. Most of the ancient Russian cities were built of wood. Fires broke out frequently and everywhere, in which earlier written sources perished. It is for this reason that the discovery of the Tmutarakan principality aroused great interest among contemporaries.

Stone Tmutarakansky

First mention of Tmutarakan

Tmutarakan as a geographical name was first mentioned in the Tale of Bygone Years. Historians studying the manuscript became interested in the name, which had not been heard anywhere before. Many historians of that time spoke about the location of the hitherto unknown principality. Vasily Tatishchev suggested that Tmutarakan was inRyazan region. Andrey Lyzlov, a 17th-century historian, spoke about the lands near Astrakhan. Publicist historian Mikhail Shcherbatov put forward a version that Tmutarakan was not far from Azov. In those years, the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to Russia was just underway, so the latest version was very helpful. The inscription on the Tmutarakan stone of 1068 put an end to all disputes.

From Germonass to Tmutarakan

Currently, information about Tmutarakan is still being collected and refined. But some things have long been considered historically proven facts. It is known that initially the city of Tmutarakan was founded by the Greeks and had a different name - Germonass. It was part of the Bosporus kingdom from the 6th century BC. e. The houses in the city were built of stone and were very similar - all two-story, consisting of 5 rooms and covered with tiles. In the center was the acropolis. After the conquest by the Turkic Khaganate, the city was renamed Tumentarkhan. The city was often raided and eventually turned into a fortress. Representatives of different nationalities (Alans, Greeks, Khazars, Armenians) and religions (Christians, Jews, pagans) lived here. The townspeople were engaged in trade and winemaking.

The inscription on the Tmutarakan stone

History of the city

In 956, after the defeat of the Khazar Khaganate, the city came under the rule of Russia. And got the name Tmutarakan. At that time, it was a fairly large trading city through which economic and political ties were maintained. Many famous names in the history of Russia are associated with the main city of the principality. Prince Glebmeasured the distance from Tmutarakan to Korchevo on ice, as the inscription on the Tmutarakan stone says. Over the years, Tmutarakan was ruled by such Russian princes as Mstislav Vladimirovich, Rostislav Vladimirovich, Oleg Svyatoslavovich, Ratibor. For some time the city was under the control of Byzantium. Since that time, the seals of Oleg Svyatoslavovich have been preserved, which confirm this information. And the Tmutarakan stone, discovered in 1972, also serves as a historical artifact.

city ​​of Tmutarakan

Modern Artifact Studies

After 1904, there is not a single mention of the existence of Tmutarakan and the Tmutarakan principality in Russian chronicles. Currently, the Taman settlement, on the territory of which the Tmutarakan stone was allegedly discovered, is still being studied. Excavations are still being carried out there. The Tmutarakan stone, the photo of which is presented in this article, is also being carefully studied by a variety of historians and linguists to this day. The first to read and decipher the Old Russian inscription was A. N. Olenin. The authenticity of this inscription was doubted for a long time, but further study nevertheless confirmed its historical significance. In 1940, A. Mazon raised the question of the authenticity of the Tale of Igor's Campaign, in which there is also a mention of Tmutarakan. He was supported by several more scientists, but they did not provide any new facts and evidence in support of their theory and could not scientifically substantiate the view of the Tmutarakan stone as a fake. The dubious statements of a group of these historians after allpushed representatives of the scientific world to the next analysis of the inscription on the stone. A. A. Medyntseva carried out a thorough paleographic analysis and compared it with the found manuscripts of that time. In addition, the stone itself, the degree of its destruction, was re-examined. As a result of these studies, scientists once again came to the conclusion that the found stone is a true historical evidence of the existence of the Tmutarakan principality.

Tmutarakan Principality

Tmutarakan today

Currently, in the place where the city of Tmutarakan was supposedly located, and where the Tmutarakan stone was discovered, the history of which is still being discussed, is the city of Taman. Residents of the city sacredly keep the history of their small homeland, which is rooted in the depths of centuries. The turning point in the history of Taman and the Taman Peninsula was the 18th century - it was at this time that the Black Sea and Don Cossacks began to move here. At the beginning of the next century, Russia became a participant in the long-term Caucasian war, and numerous bloody battles took place on the territory of the Taman Peninsula. These places were not bypassed by subsequent wars - the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars. In November 1918, the Kuban was liberated from the Bolsheviks. And during the Great Patriotic War, the inhabitants of the peninsula heroically fought the enemy for Odessa and Sevastopol.

Conquest of Tmutarakan

Monument in Taman

Today the Taman Peninsula is a rich fertile land, a real paradise for tourists. At one time the city was visitedsuch famous poets as Lermontov, Pushkin and Griboyedov. On the territory of Taman there is an exact copy of the artifact, which is stored in the Hermitage. The inscription on the Tmutarakan stone of 1068 was also transferred to the monument, which was installed in the city.

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