The vast length of the borders of the Russian Federation is determined by the corresponding size of its territory, as the largest world power. Of the 60,932 kilometers of the total length, the land borders of Russia on the map are more than 36% - 22,125 kilometers. In the north and east, there are borders along the seas of the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, and the land borders of Russia extend in the west of the country and in the south.
New borders of RF
A border is a line that runs along the surface of the Earth and establishes the limits of the jurisdiction of a given state. This line is fixed by legal documents between states (delimitation), and is also fixed by boundary markers on the ground (demarcation).
As a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia found itself in a difficult position, as new borders appeared that were previously considered administrative, internal. They had to be equipped, which would require enormous costs. At the same time, the old borders ended up on the borders of the former union. Considering the countries with which Russia hasland border, all the borders of the Russian Federation can be divided into several groups.
1. The old ones that Russia inherited from the Soviet Union: with the countries of Northern Europe, Poland, as well as with China, Mongolia and the DPRK. They are equipped and mostly demarcated.
2. Administrative borders with the former republics of the union, which have now become state borders. They can also be divided into two groups:
- with CIS countries;
- with the B altic countries.
These borders are not yet sufficiently equipped and transparent. Not all of them went through delimitation and demarcation. All controversial issues have not yet been resolved and not all borders are fully protected. To better imagine what land borders Russia has, it is possible to conditionally divide them into the following sections.
The northernmost part of the land border of the Russian Federation passes beyond the Arctic Circle. Russia's land neighbors in the northwest are, first of all, Norway. Its length is small - less than two hundred kilometers, and it goes through the areas of the tundra and the river valley, without having sufficiently pronounced natural landmarks. Norwegian and Russian power plants are located along the border, and the construction of transport routes is planned. This frontier line has remained unchanged and stable since 1826 after many years of disputes between the two states over the possession of the Kola Peninsula. There are currently no disputes between Norway and Russia. From the Russian side, the Murmansk region adjoins the border.
More Russia has a land border with Finland about 1,300 kilometers long, running through a small hill, swamps and lakes - it was established after the Paris peace treaty in 1947. There are also no noticeable natural boundaries. On the Russian side, three regions border on Finland - the Murmansk region, Karelia and St. Petersburg. This site is important for foreign trade activities.
Special position of the Kaliningrad region
The Kaliningrad region, located on the coast of the B altic Sea and being a semi-exclave of Russia with access to the sea, has a border with Poland for 250 kilometers, as well as with Lithuania - 300 kilometers long, passing along the Neman River. The demarcation with Lithuania was formalized in 1997, but some controversial issues have not yet been resolved. There are no disputes regarding borders with Poland.
Borders with the B altic countries
Passing through the lake-river landscape, small hills, the western border approaches the Sea of Azov. In this section, some neighboring states of Russia make claims to small disputed territories. For example, Estonia and Latvia laid claim to the lands of several districts of the Pskov region with a total area of more than three thousand square kilometers. The length of the Belarusian-Russian border line is a thousand kilometers. Of all the countries with which Russia has a land border, this is the most stable, and there are no territorial problems between the countries, and since 2011 there are no forms of border control either. It can be freelycross anytime and anywhere. This section remains the most important transport hub connecting Russia with European countries.
Border with Ukraine
Russia has a land border with Ukraine about 1,300 kilometers long, and the main point of contention here is Crimea. The common borders of the three republics - Ukraine, Belarus and Russia were determined during the Soviet period, and after the end of the Second World War, the territory of Ukraine increased due to the lands that had moved from the Eastern European countries to the Soviet Union. From Russia, several regions border Ukraine - this border line was formed back in the late 20s of the 20th century, and in 2014 relations between the countries escalated because of the Crimean peninsula, which Ukraine considers its territory. However, the transfer of Crimea to Ukraine in 1954 was not entirely constitutional, and Sevastopol was given the status of a separate administrative center of republican significance even earlier, and there was no decision to transfer it at all. Due to the tense situation between the countries, Russia is forced to think about laying new railway lines.
The highland borders of Russia
The land borders of Russia in the south originate in the Psou river valley and pass along the Main Range of the Greater Caucasus, and then continue along the Samur river valley to the Caspian Sea. The neighboring states of Russia in this section more than a thousand kilometers long are Georgia and Azerbaijan. Here the boundary is clearlynatural boundaries, since the harsh mountain conditions did not allow them to settle at such a height. However, this border area is the most problematic of all the countries with which Russia has a land border. Extremely difficult natural conditions, ethnic diversity of the population and a tense political situation are typical for this area. Eternal snow on the peaks of the Caucasus mountains, steep passes with glaciers are natural obstacles to objectively determining the exact length of the border. Such data is necessary for arranging the border and ensuring its security. And this, in turn, is associated with huge material costs.
Transportation on the Caucasian border
Transport links with the Transcaucasian countries are also problematic. Of the two cross-border railways, only one is functioning in full - connecting Azerbaijan with Dagestan. The second, passing through Abkhazia, does not operate due to the political and economic sanctions of Georgia against Abkhazia. Two road routes to Georgia are built through the passes, but they also require significant repairs. There are also trails and hiking trails, but they are only suitable for use in the summer. Natural barriers and complex political relationships hinder economic ties. The problem is that in Soviet times the entire infrastructure was formed as a single complex of enterprises, it requires the joint operation of facilities.
Problems of the Caucasian border
The unrecognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia are located in this region. To determine the boundaries, first of all, it is necessary to resolve the conflict between these entities and Georgia. Now the sections passing through the territory of the republics of the KBR, KChR and Ingushetia have already been agreed, but many fundamental issues between Russia and Georgia still remain unresolved. Basically, the border line with Azerbaijan has been agreed, but there are still some controversial points.
However, the biggest problem in this region is armed conflicts, extremism and inter-ethnic conflicts, which pose a threat to the integrity of Russia and neighboring states. Under these conditions, the migration factor plays a significant role. In addition, the process of awareness of new borders by the peoples of the Caucasian republics is difficult. Especially if they do not coincide with ethnic boundaries. Therefore, one of the tasks facing the border services is also to establish relationships with the local population. Nevertheless, this section of the border is gradually being equipped and cross-border ties with the Transcaucasian services are being established.
Border with Kazakhstan
Russia's land borders stretch from the coast of the Caspian Sea through the desert steppes of the Caspian Lowland to the Altai Mountains for more than 7,500 kilometers - the border with Kazakhstan, the longest and marked by natural landmarks only in Altai. The countries have already signed an agreement on delimitation. This border between Kazakhstan and Russia isa unique phenomenon in world practice not only by the length of the joint border, but also by significant transparency. At the same time, it should be noted that it separates countries with different religious traditions. Sufficiently comfortable landscape conditions make the border areas convenient for transportation. Since not only a single production structure, but also a transport structure was created in the Soviet period, many roads and railways cross the former administrative, and now the state border, sometimes several times. In recent years, both countries have been trying to reduce the dependence of their transport links on the neighboring side. To this end, new roads and railway lines are being built.
Chinese expansion into Russia
Russia's land borders from Altai to the Pacific Ocean mostly pass through mountain ranges. The length of the joint border line with Mongolia is almost 3,000 kilometers. The countries have long signed agreements on the delimitation and demarcation of the joint border. Relations have long been built on the basis of friendship and mutual cooperation.
Mentioning the countries with which Russia has a land border, it is worth dwelling in more detail on Russia's relations with China. The border with the PRC is unique in that, while separating various political and civilizational systems, it is, nevertheless, not an obstacle to the demographic expansion of this country into Russian lands. This expansion goes not only through the Russian side, but also through Kazakhstan, which is caused by its transparency.After all, part of the Russian border with China is now a joint border line of China, on the one hand, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, on the other. Now the length of the border line between China and Russia is more than 4,000 kilometers.
Demarcation of the border with China
The demarcation agreements were almost ready in 1999, but there were unresolved issues regarding two small areas that contain the risk of complicating relations in the future. The final demarcation of the border took place in 2005 as a result of territorial concessions from Russia. At present, China benefits much more from a border position than Russia. She is forced to solve the difficult problem of illegal labor migration of the Chinese and their smuggling.
The length of Russia's land borders with North Korea is just over 17 kilometers, and it runs along the Tumangan River - this is the shortest of all sections of the border. On a small island of this river is an unusual place. it meets the borders of three states - Russia, China and North Korea. All agreements on the delimitation and demarcation of borders between the DPRK and the Russian Federation have been signed, and there are no territorial disputes.