The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. The states closest in area to it are almost half the size of it. The territory of Russia is more than 17 million square kilometers. It consists of 85 subjects, including republics, regions, territories, autonomous regions and other subjects. They occupy different areas. It is interesting to know which is the largest and which is the smallest republic in Russia.
From Sakho to Ingushetia
The largest of the 22 republics in the Russian Federation is Yakutia, or the Republic of Sakha. By the way, she has had this name since the end of 1991.
Sakha covers an area of just over 3 million square meters. km. It is part of the Far Eastern District of the Russian Federation and is located in the northeast of Siberia. Consists of 33 districts and 5 cities. Yakutsk became its capital. Less than one million people live in Sakha, so in terms of densityof the population, it occupies one of the lowest places.
The smallest republic in Russia is Ingushetia, located in the North Caucasus and covering an area of 3628 square meters. km.
More about Ingushetia
It became an independent republic within the Russian Federation in 1992. Since 1936 it was part of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Before that, there was the Terek region. The first relationship between the Ingush and Russia dates back to 1770. After 40 years, in 1810, a number of significant Ingush clans, the so-called teips, became Russian subjects.
Today, Ingushetia is part of the North Caucasian Federal District. It is subject to administrative-territorial division into 4 districts and 4 cities. The capital is the city of Magas.
The smallest republic in Russia is located in the north of the central part of the Greater Caucasus. Its length from north to south is 144 km, from east to west - 72 km. The relief is mountainous and foothill. The population mainly lives in the Sunzha Valley (453 thousand people).
Although this small republic is traditionally distinguished by hospitality, however, the life of its population cannot be called calm. Territorial disputes with Chechnya and North Ossetia are bringing tension to this Russian region.
Other small republics
The smallest republic in Russia, Ingushetia, is half the size of the next smallest republic, Adygea, which covers an area of 7792 square meters. km. Adygea is surrounded by the territory of the Krasnodar Territory. Its capital is the city of Maikop. Educatedit was on the territory of the Kuban-Black Sea region in 1922 and was called at that time the Circassian (Adyghe) Autonomous Region.
The top three of the smallest republics of the Russian Federation is closed by North Ossetia (in other words - Alania), which is located in the northern part of the Greater Caucasus. Its area is 7987 sq. km. The capital is the city of Vladikavkaz. North Ossetia, like Ingushetia, is one of the most densely populated regions of the Russian Federation (5th place).
Slightly larger subjects
If we consider the republics of Russia on the map, we can also find those that are somewhat larger than those indicated, but still occupy very small territories. The area of such republics exceeds 10 thousand square meters. km, but does not reach 20 thousand. These are Kabardino-Balkaria (12470 sq. km), Karachay-Cherkessia (14277 sq. km) and Chechnya (15647 sq. km). All of them are part of the North Caucasian Federal District - the youngest in the Russian Federation, formed in 2010.
Chuvashia, whose area is 18343 square meters, can also be attributed to the same group. km. It is located in the center of the European part of the Russian Federation. The republic includes 21 districts and 9 cities. The capital of Chuvashia is the city of Cheboksary, located on the banks of the Volga. The population of the republic is 1 million 239 thousand people. It consists mainly of Chuvash and Russians.
Small or big
Perhaps, the largest republics are those whose area exceeds 20 thousand square meters. km, but does not reach 50 thousand square meters. km is not possible. Russia also includes such administrative units. The Republic of Mordovia, for example, occupiesarea 26128 sq. km and is divided into 22 districts, and also has 3 cities of republican subordination. Its capital is the city of Saransk.
In 1994, the Republic of Mordovia was formed from the Mordovian SSR. Geographically, it is located on the East European Plain. Belongs to the Volga Federal District of the Russian Federation. Its population is a little over 810 thousand people.
Almost the same territory is occupied by the Republic of Mari El - 23375 square meters. km. It is located in the Volga Federal District of the Russian Federation. In Soviet times, it was called the Mari ASSR. Almost 700 thousand people live in the republic, mainly Mari and Russians.
A notable feature of this region is the abundance of rivers - about 190, the main one being the Volga.
Among the subjects of the federation, which includes Russia, the Udmurt Republic also cannot boast of a vast territory. Its area is 42061 sq. km.
Udmurtia has been leading its statehood since 1920. Then the Votskaya AO was formed, which later became the Udmurt AO. It also belongs to the Volga Federal District, located in the Urals. Its population is more than 1.5 million people. The capital is the city of Izhevsk.
The Last Republic
In March 2014, Russia was replenished with two more subjects of the federation. The Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol became part of it.
If we turn to history, the Crimea originally joined Russia in 1783. Taurida region, then Novorossiyskprovince, then Crimean ASSR, Crimean region. Crimea had such different names during the years of its stay as part of Russia and the RSFSR. In 1954 he was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. The Republic of Crimea began to be called since 1991.
The area of the peninsula is 26081 sq. km. The population of Crimea, together with the city of Sevastopol, is more than 2 million 300 thousand people. Most of them are Russians, Ukrainians in second place, Tatars in third.
Looking at the Russian republics on the map, you can see that Crimea falls out of the general conglomerate and does not have a land border with the rest of Russia. Crimea is washed by the Azov and Black Seas. It is connected to the mainland by the Perekop Isthmus, which is only 8 kilometers wide, and borders at this point on the Kherson region of Ukraine. However, Russia immediately begins beyond the Kerch Strait.
The Republic of Crimea is characterized by favorable, mild natural and climatic conditions and a wide variety of landscapes. It was rightfully considered the main he alth resort of the Soviet Union, and later - the CIS countries.