The autonomic nervous system innervates what?

Science 2023

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The autonomic nervous system innervates what?
The autonomic nervous system innervates what?

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system that innervates the internal organs and maintains the constancy of the internal environment. The second name of the ANS is autonomous, since its work occurs at an unconscious level and does not depend on the will of a person.


Conventionally, the system is divided into two sections - sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PSNS). The active substance of the first is the well-known adrenaline. The second neurotransmitter is acetylcholine. The longest nerve in the human body - vagus - vagus (n. Vagus), implements the influence of parasympathetic.

autonomic nervous system innervates


So, what does the autonomic nervous system innervate and how does it manifest itself:

  1. Influence on the respiratory system. Vagus innervation causes a decrease in the lumen of the bronchi, a fallrespiratory rate per minute. At the same time, the activity of the bronchial glands increases. The extreme degree of obstruction is observed in bronchial asthma. The SNS acts the other way around: the smooth muscles of the bronchi relax, the patency of the bronchial tree increases, and the production of mucus by the bronchial glands decreases. The respiratory volume of the lungs increases, and, as a result, gas exchange increases.
  2. Impact on the cardiovascular system. The autonomic nervous system innervates blood vessels and the heart. If the body is dominated by parasympathetic, a person is prone to a rare pulse and low blood pressure. A high level of adrenaline, especially during stress, provokes vasospasm, with the exception of the coronary arteries and skeletal muscle vessels. Blood pressure rises, strength and heart rate increase.
  3. The autonomic nervous system innervates the digestive system. PSNS causes increased intestinal motility, relaxes the sphincters of the gastrointestinal tract, causes contraction of the gallbladder, stimulates the production of gastric juice. In patients with various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcer, excessive vagal tone is common. The sympathetic division has the exact opposite effect.
  4. The autonomic nervous system innervates the urinary system. The ANS predominantly acts on the bladder. The parasympathetic part causes relaxation of the sphincter of the bladder and contraction of its wall. Urination occurs. Under the influence of sympathy, the sphincter comes into tone, and the tension of the muscle wallfalls. At the extreme, atony occurs.
  5. autonomic nervous
  6. The autonomic nervous system innervates the pupil. Everyone remembers that in a state of excitement or anxiety, the pupil dilates. The sympathetic division of the ANS is to blame for this. Innervation of the PSNS leads, on the contrary, to muscle contraction - it narrows.
  7. the autonomic nervous system innervates blood vessels

Sympathetic department

In addition, the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system has an independent effect on a number of processes and indicators of metabolism. It increases blood glucose and lipid levels. Accelerates clotting time. Stimulates basal metabolism up to one hundred percent. An interesting fact: under the influence of the SNS, the spikelet muscles of the skin contract. Hence the expression "from fear, the hair stood on end." The parasympathetic department does not influence these processes.

vegetative vessels


What autonomic nervous system innervates organs? It innervates all the internal organs of a person. Its two main divisions are sympathetic and parasympathetic. These are two sides of the same coin. They complement each other, ensuring the coordinated work of the whole organism. Depending on the environmental conditions, the influence of one of the departments may increase. In stressful, unfamiliar situations, sympathy dominates. The parasympathetic department is maximally active during routine activities.

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