Types, formation and development of economic thinking

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Types, formation and development of economic thinking
Types, formation and development of economic thinking

In order to modernize the financial sector, society needs a change in consciousness and the acquisition of such an important quality as economic thinking. The transition to a market system, the emergence of a large infrastructure, the launch of new mechanisms, the reduction of state control, privatization - all this in most cases leads to misunderstanding, indifference, old ideas about the economy, the economic system as a whole. It is at this moment that there is an urgent need for a new look, without which no transformations can do. The formation of modern economic thinking is the most important task, the solution of which is possible only in the process of changes in the world as a whole.


The role of consciousness and literate thinking in the economy is distinguished by its upward trend. But it is important to remember that economic thinking in Russia has been developing for a long time under the conditions of a command-administrative system with a strong bureaucratic component and has changed in every possible way. It is for this reason that the purposefulness and speed of change in society's opinion will affect the depth and quality of transformations in any sphere.

Economy and consciousness

The emerging needs have led to a lot of research on the development of economic thinking and laying its foundations. When studying such a term, a number of fundamental sciences were used: psychology, philosophy, economics and sociology. Only a versatile approach helps to give a deep understanding and determine the ways of the formation of consciousness in modern conditions.

Philosophical approach

The greatest progress in the scientific literature in the study and description of economic consciousness has been achieved by the following well-known authors; A. K. Uledov, V. D. Popov, V. I. Fofanov and others.

Philosophical approach

In our country, special attention is paid to the works of L. I. Abalkin, L. S. Blyakhman, V. I. Miroshkin, V. V. Radchenko, K. A. Ulybin. Also, the functioning of economic consciousness was studied by many Western economists: L. Erhard, F. Hayek, M. Freeman, P. Hein, H. Lampert, P. Samuelson.

How is thinking studied?

The most profound and detailed study of the formation of modern economic thinking in our country began in the mid-80s of the last century. The rise of the study of this side of the economy falls on the end of the 80s. At that time, the concepts, functions and principle of operation of economic consciousness were described in detail, already existing thinking was sharply criticized.

The study of economic thinking

Despite the hard work of scientists in this field, many questions continued to be a mystery, widely discussed, andsometimes not even touched. To a greater extent, this referred to the types of economic consciousness among the population, the methodological prerequisites for studying the direction of changes, the ways and means involved in the development of thinking.

Changes in the economic sphere

The onset of accelerated changes led to the deformation and transformation of economic thinking. Under the influence of such factors, its types began to develop.

Changes in the economic sphere

It is important to remember that the process of reforming the economy is uneven. Often one can notice situations that are characteristic not of modern, but of its original traditional forms. It is these factors that do not allow the modern consciousness of people to develop fully, deform it in every possible way, give it perverted and false forms.

To get rid of heterogeneous development, it is important to use policy adjustment mechanisms, as well as special approaches to the formation of economic thinking. Currently, almost no specialist publishes work on the formation of this type of consciousness.

The following questions should be investigated in particular detail. What characteristics of socially oriented market thinking are optimal in the conditions of Russian society? What is the peculiarity of the formation of economic consciousness in these conditions.


The main purpose of the study is to determine the foundations of economic thinking, its varieties, the characteristics of the consciousness of the people of a particular country, the means and methods of formingorienting-market consciousness. To achieve this goal, it is important to solve the following economic tasks:

  • Study the prerequisites for the formation of consciousness by analyzing the relationship between the material and the ideal in the field of economics.
  • Determine the content and structure of economic consciousness, identify the relationship with science in general.
  • Determine the types of thinking, reveal the main features of each.
  • Indicate the features and stages of development of concrete thinking in the country.


Economic thinking is a complex phenomenon with a difficult structure, arising as a result of economic relations and manifested in the cognition and transformation of reality. When considering this issue, it is important to take into account the conditions under which this type of consciousness develops - the spiritual, socio-political and financial side of the life of the country.

In general, economic consciousness was formed under the influence of specific historical conditions and was determined by the objective need to comprehend socio-economic changes. Thinking is certainly a social process that has its own functions and takes into account the individual abilities of economic entities.

The concept of thinking in economics

Consciousness as a social phenomenon is a complex process and needs to combine different scientific knowledge: philosophy, sociology, flexibility of interdisciplinary issues.

Thinking of this type helps to show the level of awareness of the population of economic issues and relations incountry, as well as to consider the existing reality. This approach allows us to consider modern economic thinking in a particular situation. In the traditional understanding of the market, consciousness was determined by the experience accumulated by people, their participation in economic relations with those connections that they enter into every day. Many scientific sources clarify that consciousness is not only the knowledge of the laws of economics and categories, but also the guidance of the relationships themselves.

Features of human formation

In a broad sense, economic thinking is an activity of consciousness aimed at understanding and reflecting the activities, interests and needs of the economic sphere as a whole and its modification in the process of practical economic activity between subjects. The same concept as a form of consciousness exists at the empirical and theoretical level.

How is it formed in humans?

The first level is formed during the economic relations themselves and is based on the facts of everyday life experience in the conditions of life. Sociological research has helped to reveal that this kind of consciousness operates on an empirical level. It reflects external phenomena that fix a certain connection.

Empirical and theoretical level

The experiential level of consciousness includes everyday issues that become habitual for a person as a result of regular practice. The second level is theoretical. It is associated with the modernization of economic production, the strengthening of ties and the complexity of the structure. Turns on the awareness processeconomic activity, laws of development of science, the emergence of judgments, concepts that reflect reality in its entirety.

Empirical level is the result of theoretical knowledge, provides all the conditions for the formation of initial knowledge in the economy. The theoretical becomes real only under the condition of its empirical refraction. Also, this level supplies empirical concepts and already systematized views.

Distinctive features of modern economic consciousness

Economic thinking of people currently differs in the following group of signs:

  1. The most pronounced sign of modern economic consciousness, scientists and experts consider the strengthening of its innovative qualities, the creative side and the emergence of newer projects. Through the cognitive, scientific and innovative process, thinking evaluates and forecasts the state of the economy in the country. It creates visual images, opportunities to improve the market system and modify activities between actors.
  2. The process of globalization of economic thinking: an important reorientation procedure, which includes the transition to common criteria, the integration of the country's economy into the world relations of other countries.

Intellectual activity

Another and not the least important feature of modern economic consciousness, which speaks of its high level of development, is the equipment with more complex methods of intellectual activity (economic models and algorithmsmodeling, computer technology, process automation, costing and accurate economic calculations). Modern progress makes it possible to use new types of raw materials in the economy, produce products with new and better properties, rebuild the production process and the material and technical components of the market. Such a factor once again indicates that it is very important to ensure that economic thinking develops under the influence of science.

A new modern consciousness in society appears as a result of contradictions: the opposition of obsolete, familiar to many, economic ideas rooted in other conditions with new circumstances and living conditions.

Interrelation of two systems

In general, the principles of economic thinking consist of the influence of creative and innovative thought. Modern consciousness expands the intellectual and spiritual knowledge of society, directs them to the search for reasonable and adequate assessments of the changed economic processes.

The relations themselves in this area do not stop changing, so they are more like a process. Thinking helps to reflect economic relations at the empirical level, as well as to formulate them in the form of laws and concepts at the theoretical level. If the economic thinking of the modern population of planet Earth does not continue to actively improve and transform, then the economy will end up in a state of stagnation. All this will have a bad effect on the overall situation in the world.

Type of economic thinking

Consciousness in the field of economics directly depends on historical conditions andfeatures of relations in society. The production process becomes the main typological characteristic, is the main factor for understanding the essence of economic consciousness and determining its quality.

If we talk about the ancient man who existed in the period of communities, it is important to remember that commodity-money relations were not developed at all, and the main and almost the only form of relations was barter. The economic consciousness of people in ancient times was formed under the influence of abstract figurative concepts and sensory perception of the environment.

Traditional economy

Scientists called this type of thinking mythological. Now it exists only in fairy tales, myths and legends. This type of thinking works on the principle of unconscious identification of the subjective world created in the imagination of a person and objective reality. The main feature of this type of consciousness is that a rational being thinks, experiences about itself as a part of a certain outlined group society. His behavior and order of thought develop as a result of group activities. In this case, there is no individual form of labor at all.

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