Reforms of Peter 1: causes, goals and results

History 2023

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Reforms of Peter 1: causes, goals and results
Reforms of Peter 1: causes, goals and results
Anonim

It is almost endless to talk about the activities of the Russian Emperor Peter the Great. He was a bright enough person, and left a mark in the history of Russia so noticeable that descendants are still arguing over what to put Pyotr Alekseevich with a bold plus, and which cases should be attributed to minuses. What, in fact, prompted the Russian emperor to start a global restructuring? What are the reasons for the reforms of Peter 1? What did not suit him in the structure of the Russian state of that time? Why couldn't he, like many other kings, calmly, doing nothing, enjoy power over vast territories? What did he miss? To understand this, you will have to make a brief excursion into history and consider the main state reforms of Peter 1.

military reforms of peter 1

Reign of Peter 1

The years of the reign of Emperor Peter the Great were very difficult for our state. It was a time of great wars and transformations. The situation in the country often called for immediate and bold decisions. Later they said thatmany of the reforms of Peter 1 were not thought out and adopted in haste, without taking into account the characteristics of specific regions and districts. But the fact of the matter is that many of the sovereign's reforms were taken as temporary measures while the country was in a state of war or crisis. Unfortunately, wars and crises in Russia almost never ended, and temporary reforms smoothly flowed into durable ones, while remaining unfinished.

It cannot be said that all his reforms are not thought out. Many were just called to restore order. Such were the management reforms of Peter 1. He replaced the Boyar Duma with the Senate, which, in fact, served only to promulgate his decrees. According to the management reform, Peter 1 made all the laws personally. Thus, the emperor simplified the administration of the country as much as possible.

economic reforms of peter 1

The church reform of Peter 1 was also carried out in order to simplify administration as much as possible and put an end to disagreements. She completely transferred the church under the control of the state, abolishing the position of patriarch. The church reform of Peter 1 actually turned Russian clergy into government officials.

Goal of change

It is important to remember that all the reasons for the reforms of Peter the Great were somehow connected with the fact that Russia really needed access to the coast of the B altic Sea. The Russian Tsar could not sleep peacefully while the Swedes ruled there. The emperor knew that victory in this war would automatically change the geopolitical position of Russia. He was interested in taking his country into the familyEuropean states. Peter struggled to bring the level of development of his country closer to the states of Europe. Today, many of the goals of the reforms of Peter 1 in this area are considered controversial. Historians disagree on their effectiveness. Of course, all these actions of Emperor Peter the Great were a serious step in the development of the state. At the same time, the haste and some chaos in the application of these European principles in Russia led to the fact that only a small number of people learned all the rules. Mostly they were nobles. Nothing has changed for the rest of the country's population.

management reforms of peter 1

Meaning of transformations

In brief, the activities of Emperor Peter the Great can be characterized by the following points:

  1. Russia finally broke through to the B altic.
  2. Became an empire (accordingly, Peter 1 became emperor).
  3. Joined into the "friendly European family" and got her role in the international political arena.
  4. Increased her status by an order of magnitude (they began to reckon with her).

In this regard, Emperor Peter 1 was simply obliged to carry out serious transformations. Naturally, this affected legislation, the administrative and bureaucratic system. It is worth noting that these changes turned out to be very effective and lasted until 1917 without significant changes. Therefore, it can be said with confidence that in this direction the emperor achieved his goal.

Results of the emperor's reforms

Not everything went smoothly with the innovations of Petr Alekseevich. After allalmost all of his ideas required increasing pressure on the population - both financial and physical. And it's not just the peasants. All layers were exploited without exception. A large number of military campaigns created huge financial problems.

The economic reforms of Peter the Great were to encourage the development of industry, the construction of new plants and factories, and the development of deposits. The king supported trade in every possible way.

There were unpleasant moments in the economic reforms of Peter the Great. Despite his disposition to trade, Peter imposed huge taxes on merchants. Production existed due to the labor of serfs, who were attached by entire villages to plants and factories.

Social reforms

Most of all social reforms have influenced the Russian society. Many historians believe that it was then that society was finally divided into layers. Mainly thanks to the well-known document "Table of Ranks". This paper defined and consolidated the position of civil servants (military and officials). In addition, under Peter the issue of serfdom was finally formalized.

Some historians believe that there is nothing strange in these changes, they were natural, given the situation. In addition, they mainly touched the top of society.

Reforms in the cultural sphere

The state reforms of Peter 1 affected not only the military operations of the army and government. They were especially noticeable in the cultural image. Most likely, this is due to the fact that our traditions and customs are strikinglydifferent from European values. The main goal of the emperor was not to force Russians to wear European clothes or eat Western food, but to adapt, synchronize Russian life with European culture.

Be that as it may, he did not achieve any special results in this field. Peter really wanted the nobles to receive a decent education. For this, various institutes and other educational institutions were built. Russia vitally needed scientists and engineers for the construction of plants, factories, cities and ships. However, most of the children of the nobility preferred to continue to lead the old way of life.

The main results of Peter's activity in this area appeared after his death, during the reign of his successors - Elizabeth, Catherine II. A huge role in the continuation of the transformational activity was played by the "chicks of Petrov's nest". It was they who continued his work and determined the policy of his successors.

military reforms of peter 1

Military reforms

It is hard to overestimate what the Russian emperor did for the army. There are even historians who say that the main ones were the military reforms of Peter 1, and all the rest only contributed to our military successes. It was then that the regular army was created, which won so many great and glorious victories.

Russians successfully competed with the best armies in the world. According to the military reform of Peter 1, a recruiting system was introduced. This meant that each court was obliged to provide a certain number of soldiers for the army. This system workedpretty long. In the middle of the 19th century, Emperor Alexander II replaced it with general military service. The fact that the system has existed for such a long time fully proves its expediency and effectiveness in this period of time.

the results of the reforms of Peter 1

Building a fleet

In addition to creating an army, a huge plus can be put to the Russian emperor for organizing a regular navy. Russia won a number of brilliant naval victories in battles with Sweden, firmly securing its place as a sea power. Despite the fact that after the departure of Peter the construction of ships slowed down greatly, nevertheless, Russia brilliantly showed itself in many naval battles. Most of these victories occurred under Catherine II.

A distinctive feature of Peter was that he built ships not for any specific today's purposes. He really wanted to see his country as a great maritime power. And he did it!

reasons for the reforms of Peter 1

Diplomacy

The success of the reforms of that time is also proved by the fact that it was then, under Peter 1, that Russia rose to a high international level. It so happened that after entering the B altic and joining the “friendly European family”, not a single significant international event took place without the participation of Russia. It was then that the basis of Russian diplomacy was formed. We can say that it was the time of the appearance of the Russian diplomatic corps. This was necessary, since Russia participated in almost all major wars in Europe, and all mainland troubles, soor otherwise, concerned its state interests. Experienced, educated diplomats were worth their weight in gold.

Question of succession

In this list of wonderful things that our great ancestor managed to “create” during his life, it would be unfair not to mention one significant minus. After the tragic events associated with Tsarevich Alexei, the tsar issues a decree allowing the emperor to choose his successor himself. Perhaps at that time it was a completely reasonable decision, but, dying, Pyotr Alekseevich did not appoint himself an heir. This led to intrigues, assassinations and palace coups. All this had a negative impact not only on the domestic, but also on the foreign policy of the Russian state. Emperors changed one after another. The political course of the state was constantly being rebuilt, blood was shed, the economy was bursting at the seams, until, finally, Emperor Paul 1 canceled this ill-fated decree that brought so much trouble. From that moment on, the eldest son again became the heir to the Russian throne.

the goals of the reforms of peter 1

Conclusion

As a conclusion, it can be noted that there were still more advantages from Peter's reforms. The fact that many of his reforms remained unchanged for several decades and even centuries proves that the ruler of Russia chose the right course. His activities were fully consistent with the needs of the country. The results of the reforms of Peter 1 prove that his actions to modernize the state were deep and effective. And this despite the fact that most of them were dictatedmilitary needs. Here is just a small list of Peter the Great's reforms:

  1. Public administration reform.
  2. Regional reform.
  3. Judicial reform.
  4. Military reform.
  5. Church reform.
  6. Financial reform.
  7. Education reform.
  8. Reform of autocracy.

This, of course, is not a complete list of the transformations of the Russian Empire carried out by its first emperor, but they perfectly show the scale of the work done. Among modern historians and researchers, there are a lot of opinions about the reforms of the first Russian emperor. Often they are directly opposite.

Once a well-known politician said: “There is one thing that I will not agree to for any good in the world - this is to be the ruler of Russia! Great people, great country, but God forbid to be on its throne!”

You can judge Peter 1 as much as you like, analyze his mistakes and shortcomings, but perhaps he was one of the few of our rulers who thought not only about himself!

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