One of the most common rules of the Russian language is the spelling of particles not with different categories of words. It is impossible not to notice how difficult and ambiguous this topic is. However, any literate person needs to know this.
Verbs with "not"
First of all, in elementary school, children are taught to spell the particle NOT with the verb. Probably because everything is simple in it. With the exception of words that cannot be written without NOT, all other verbs are written only separately with them.
For example: does not perform, does not think, did not come, did not notice.
In the words "bewildered", "unwell", "does not like" a root is used that cannot be used without NOT. In this case, it is no longer a particle, but a prefix.
Generic participles also apply to the same rule. Since they are a verb form, they take on some of its features.
- He spoke without making eye contact;
- said an offensive word without thinking.
Exceptions will also be words that we do not write or pronounce without NOT:look at the fire, perplexed.
Another form formed by a verb and an adjective is the participle. Undoubtedly, it bears some signs of action. But still, this part of speech tends to describe something more. Here, the rules governing the combination of the particle NOT will differ from the verb.
Each participle, if it has a dependent word, will be part of the participial turnover. If at the same time it is used in a negative sense, then the particle is NOT written only separately.
For example: A problem that I have not solved.
It's hard not to notice that the word "unresolved" has the dependent word "me" attached to it. This means that we have a sacramental turnover. As you know, in it the participle will always be written separately with the particle NOT.
And in the phrase - an error not noticed in a timely manner - there is a dependent word "on time", which also gives the right to write the word with NOT separately.
Another example: an unfulfilled plan.
In this case, only continuous spelling is allowed, since the word does not have any dependent indications - where, by whom and when this plan was not carried out.
As with every rule, there are also exceptions. When a word cannot be used in speech without NOT, we will definitely write it together.
Example: indignant wind all spring. As you can see, even in the presence of dependent words, this participle is written together, since the variant used without this particle does notexists.
Adjectives with "not" particle
This part of speech is often confused with the participle. But unlike it, the adjective does not have a connotation of action. Its purpose is to characterize the subject, to describe it from different angles. Spelling "not" with this part of speech is more difficult than with the previous ones.
With an adjective, this particle can be written both together and not.
If we can find a synonym for the word with NOT, then we need to write it together. For example: This room is uncomfortable (bad, dirty).
When a word is not used without the particle NOT, we will also write it together.
For example: inclement weather
Separate spelling will be for adjectives that will be used with opposition in the context of the sentence:
- It was not a fun holiday, but a very boring one.
- The summer was not warm, but cool and rainy.
In some cases, the opposition is not explicit, but can only be implied. For example: The tablecloth is not white.
If the adjective has a double negative (that is, in addition to the particle, any adverb is NOT used), then write it separately.
- This jacket is not big at all.
- Our new acquaintance is by no means tall.
The names of adjectives and participles have a distinctive feature from others. They can form short forms by truncation of the ending. Their spelling with a particle will NOT differ fromfull.
- Mistake unnoticed (but not noticed (moreover));
- Dress not worn (but not worn).
From this it follows that in short forms the participle is NOT always written separately.
It's different with adjectives. Their short versions will be used with this particle in the same way as the full ones.
- Ugly act (ugly);
- Not needed at all (not needed);
- Not a pretty skirt at all (the skirt is not pretty).
Thus, we conclude that it is first necessary to determine in what form the word is used. Only then do we decide how to write NOT with him.
After studying the features of different parts of speech, we found out that there is no single rule for spelling the negative particle NOT with it. Each of them has certain nuances. It is hard not to notice that it is important to study the characteristic features of all parts of speech in order to correctly use the rules. It is worth remembering that the particle will NOT always be written separately. In many cases, its combined use is quite justified.
Using the information from our article, you will not experience difficulties in spelling the particle NOT and will not make mistakes.