Thanks to Vladimir Vysotsky's song about the legendary Captain Cook, the name of this navigator became known to almost all compatriots. But the literary component of the song "Why the aborigines ate Cook" (you will find the chords in the article) greatly diverged from reality. Although the biography of the famous pioneer actually has many colorful episodes. And his surviving diary entries are still of great interest to scientists and historians … Did the natives eat Cook? Let's try to find out.
Son of a laborer
The future traveler was born at the end of October 1728 in a village in Yorkshire. He was born into a large family with eight children. James was the second child. His father worked as an ordinary farmhand.
A few years later, the Cook family moved to another village near the city of Newcastle. It was there that little James beganstudy at the local school. Note that at the moment this educational institution has become a museum.
Cook's father hoped that his son would be engaged in trade. For the sake of this, James was given into the service of one of the haberdashers. By this time, the future captain was already thirteen years old.
However, young Cook did not like this prospect at all. Although the proximity of the seaport of Newcastle, of course, attracted him. The future discoverer spent hours looking at the ships and imagined how one day he would go on his first journey.
Escape of the apprentice haberdasher
Over time, the craving for the open spaces of the sea turned into a dream that young James decided to realize. He left a haberdashery shop, his native home and became a cabin boy on the ship "Freelove", which transported coal to the English capital. At the same time, he seriously began to engage in his self-education. He bought the corresponding books, giving for them his small earnings. He was then a real ascetic. The sailors laughed at him. And because of this, James repeatedly had to fight to maintain his independence. He persistently continued to study navigation, geography, astronomy and mathematics. In addition, he read a huge number of descriptions of sea expeditions. At that time, the future naval commander was eighteen.
A few years later, the young man received a flattering offer - to become the captain of the ship "Friendship". But he decided to refuse, becoming an ordinary sailor in the Royal Navy. He was assigned to a 60-gun ship"Eagle". A month later, he became a boatswain.
Meanwhile, the Seven Years' War began. Great Britain was also drawn into the conflict, which was fighting against France. Of course, the boatswain of the ship "Eagle" Cook took a direct part in the clashes. His ship participated in the blockade of the French coast. And at the end of the spring of 1757, the Eagle fought with the ship Duke of Aquitaine. As a result, the French ship was captured. And the Eagle went to be repaired in England. So, James got his baptism of fire.
After some time, Cook was assigned to the Pembroke ship. On this ship, he became a participant in the blockade of the Bay of Biscay. A little later, he was sent to the eastern shores of Canada. It was then that his knowledge, which was gleaned from books and textbooks, came in handy when he was still engaged in self-education.
So, Cook handed over to his superiors his map of the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, compiled by him. As a result, the talented cartographer was transferred to a special appropriate ship. The purpose of the expedition is to map the coast of Labrador. The result impressed the British Admir alty. After Cook never took part in naval battles. He was transferred to the flagship Northumberland as a foreman. In fact, it was a professional promotion.
Meanwhile, James continued to map the river. St. Lawrence and did this until 1762. The map data was published, and Cook himself received the rank of lieutenant.
He returned to England and soonengaged to Elizabeth Butts. Note immediately, the couple had 6 children. Unfortunately, all Cook's heirs passed away very early…
First expedition around the world
From the second half of the eighteenth century, the redistribution of new territories among the great European powers began again. By this time, Spain and Portugal were out of the game, but France and Great Britain once again fought each other for the annexation of new lands to the Pacific Ocean.
By order of the Admir alty, Cook, having an enviable experience in cartography and navigation, went on the first round-the-world expedition. Officially, his team began to engage in astronomical research. But these observations, in fact, were only a screen. Captain Cook was looking for new colonies, namely the southern mainland. In those days it was called Terra Incognita.
In 1769, James Cook reached the coast of Tahiti. The captain established strict discipline in the relations between the sailors and the islanders. He strictly forbade the use of violence. So, provisions for the team had to be exchanged exclusively. After all, by those standards it was a real nonsense. Europeans are used to robbing and killing natives…
When the astronomical research ended, the expedition set off for New Zealand. On the west coast, the team found an unnamed cove. The bay was named after Queen Charlotte. After that, the travelers went up to the hill. They saw that New Zealand was divided by the strait into two islands. Later this strait was named after the captain.
In 1770, the expedition approached the east coast of Australia.Mariners found several previously unknown plants there. That is why this bay was called Botanical. The following year, Cook and his associates returned to the UK.
Is it true that the natives ate Cook? You have yet to find out.
Second voyage of the captain
Just a year later, James Cook led a new expedition. It is often referred to as the Antarctic. This journey, like the previous one, was directly related to the continuation of the search for the southern mainland. Moreover, the French were very active in the southern seas.
In 1772, Cook left Plymouth, and early next year the expedition crossed the Antarctic Circle. Note that this was the first time in world history.
The team also visited Tahiti once again. It was here that the captain ordered fruits to be included in the sailors' diet. The fact is that at one time in any voyage, scurvy was a real scourge. Mortality from it was simply catastrophic. But Cook managed to learn how to fight this disease by adding just a large amount of the corresponding fruits to his diet. In fact, the navigator made a real revolution in navigation, because the mortality rate from scurvy was practically reduced to zero.
After that, the expedition visited the islands of Tongatabu and Eua. The captain was struck by the friendliness of the natives. Therefore, Cook called these territories the Islands of Friendship.
Then the travelers again went to New Zealand, and then they once again had to cross the Antarctic Circle.
In 1774, Cook discovered South Georgia and NewCaledonia. The following summer, the team returned to their native harbor.
The Fatal Journey of Captain Cook
At home, Cook was accepted into the Royal Geographical Society. In addition, he received the prestigious gold medal and the title of post-captain. In the meantime, the 3rd round-the-world expedition was also being prepared. The navigator, as always, led it. In fact, this decision of the captain was fatal.
The order of the British Admir alty was as follows. Cook was instructed to search for a route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern North America.
In the middle of 1776, the ships of the titled captain left the English harbor. At the end of the same year, sailors had already passed the Cape of Good Hope and headed towards the Australian mainland. The following year, Cook had already begun the immediate task. When the captain crossed the equator, he discovered the largest atoll on the planet. They called it Christmas Island. Three weeks later, on their way, travelers came across new islands. It was Hawaii. After that, the scientific squadron set off towards North America.
The members of the expedition passed the strait that separates America and Asia, and ended up in the Chukchi Sea. Cook's ships met not only cold winds, but also drifting ice. It was simply impossible to go any further. The captain decided to return to the warm seas.
On the way, in the Aleutian Islands, he met Russian industrialists who showed him another, their map. The captain managed to redraw it. ExceptIn addition, he named the strait separating Asia and America after the famous traveler Bering.
At the very end of the autumn of 1778, Cook's ships finally landed on the coast of the Hawaiian Islands. They were met by crowds of thousands of natives. Apparently, the islanders mistook the captain for one of their deities…
Where did the natives eat Cook? We will find out now.
The death of the captain
Why did the natives eat Cook? But is it true? Initially, the captain had very good relations with the natives. They supplied the expedition with everything necessary. True, the islanders were very surprised at the outlandish things that the team members brought with them. Actually, this unhe althy curiosity led to the fact that cases of petty theft began on British ships. The sailors tried to return the stolen goods, and because of this, there were serious skirmishes that became hotter every day.
In order not to aggravate the situation, Captain Cook decided to leave the islands, but the expedition was caught in a severe storm. The team was forced to return. How did it happen that James Cook was eaten by natives?
Meanwhile, the attitude of the natives became too hostile. In addition, the number of thefts has increased exponentially. So, ticks were stolen from the ship. Team members tried to get them back. And this attempt ended in a real combat clash. And on the next fateful day, the fourteenth of February, the longboat from the flagship was stolen altogether. Cook was determined to return the stolen goods. To do this, he and four sailors from his team invitedone of the local leaders to the ship. The captain was about to take him with him as a hostage. But at the last moment the leader suddenly refused to go with him. By this time, thousands of aggressive Hawaiians were flocking to the shore. They surrounded the navigator and his people. A moment later, stones flew at this small detachment, one of which hit the captain himself. Defending himself, Cook fired at the native. The aborigines were furious. Another stone hit the captain in the head. As a result, the islanders finished off foreigners with knives. The rest of the satellites were able to retreat to the ship and sail away.
Brilliant Captain James Cook is gone. He was only fifty.
Be that as it may, the banal theft of the longboat was the impetus after which the tragic events took place. Their deplorable result was the death of a talented captain. Moreover, eyewitnesses claim that if Cook had not shot at the Hawaiians, then there would not have been a fatal incident. According to them, the natives were not going to attack the captain's detachment at all. They were just very worried about the fate of their leader.
As we know from the song, the natives ate Cook. You can read the lyrics below.
Don't grab other people's waists, Escaped from the hands of their girlfriends!
Remember how to the shores of Australia
Cook, now deceased, swam, Like, sitting in a circle under azaleas, Drive - from sunrise to dawn -
Firs in this sunny Australia
Friend to friend evil savages.
Well, why did the natives eat Cook?
Forwhat is unclear, science is silent.
It seems to me a very simple thing:
Wanted to eat - and ate Cook!
There is an option that their leader is a big beech -
Said there was a delicious cook on Cook's ship…
Mistake came out - that's what science is silent about:
Wanted - Coca, but ate - Cook!
And there was no catch or trick at all -
Entered without knocking, almost without sound, The Bamboo Baton Launched:
Bale! straight to the crown - and no Cook!
But there is, however, another assumption, What Cook ate out of great respect, That the sorcerer was inciting everyone - a sly and evil:
"Atu, guys, grab Cook!
Who will eat it without s alt and without onions, He will be strong, brave, kind - like Cook!"
Someone came across a rock, Thrown, viper, - and no Cook!
And the savages are now wringing their hands, Break copy, break bows, They burned and threw bamboo batons -
Worry about eating Cook!
This is the text of the song "Why the natives ate Cook". You can read the guitar chords below.
Don't grab other people's waists,
Escaped from the hands of their girlfriends,
Remember how to the shores of Australia
Cook, now deceased, swam up.
There, sitting in a circle under the azaleas,
Let's go from sunrise to dawn
Firs in this sunny Australia
Hm F7 Hm A7
Friend to friend evil savages.
D Ddim7 Em7
But why did the natives eat Cook?
A7 D H7
For what - it is not clear, science is silent.
It seems to me a very simple thing:
F7 Hm A7
Wanted to eat - and ate Cook.
Farewell to Captain James Cook
After the death of the captain, his assistant Charles Clark was forced to lead the expedition. First of all, he conducted a special military operation. Under the cover of ship's guns, his detachment destroyed the settlements that were on the coast. After that, the new captain entered into negotiations with the leader of the natives. Clark demanded to give the remains of the deceased Cook. As a result, the islanders brought to the ship a basket with several pounds of human meat, as well as a head without a lower jaw. This is all that was left of the famous navigator.
At the end of February 1779, the remains of the captain were lowered into the sea. The team lowered their flag and gave a gun salute. The next day, the members of the infamous expedition set off on their further journey, leaving the Hawaiian Islands behind them.
They say that even before parting with the body of the captain, the Hawaiians buried part of his flesh. Moreover, apart from the bones. Such rituals are traditional for the natives. At the same time, they were performed exclusively with the bodies of great heroes, whodistinguished themselves in battles, or leaders. Perhaps that is why the islanders returned to the British only fragments of the body of James Cook.
Now you will no longer have a question about why the natives ate Cook.
Continuation of the story of the famous Captain Cook
Having said goodbye to the islands, the orphaned expedition went north and began to search for a route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The ships made a stop in the Peter and Paul harbor. After that, the captain again wanted to break through the Chukchi Sea, but this was also in vain. Clark passed away shortly after. He was stricken with tuberculosis. He was buried in Kamchatka.
James Cook's wife lived for more than half a century after her husband's death. She died at 93. All her life she sincerely admired the captain and tried to measure everything only by his moral convictions and honor. Before her death, she destroyed almost all correspondence with her husband and personal papers. She was buried in the family vault in Cambridge.
But the story with Captain Cook didn't end at all. In the spring of 1823, the king of Hawaii named Kamehameha II came with his wife to the shores of Foggy Albion. Three months later, the monarch died. But the day before, he handed over to the doctors an arrow with wooden plumage and an iron tip. According to the native, this bone arrow is none other than the bone of Captain Cook.
In 1886, this peculiar relic was transported to Australia and kept there until recently. But the head of the Captain Cook Society, Mr. C. Tronton, checked the authenticity of thisarrows. The bone was x-rayed. As it became known, it could belong to a dolphin, a whale, and a person. The next step was a DNA test. However, all the children of the captain died early and did not have offspring. But on the other hand, relatives of the pioneer's sister are alive. Her name was Margaret. Some time later, Mr. Tronton stated that DNA analysis confirmed that the bone had nothing to do with the famous navigator …
Merit of Captain James Cook
Now that we have found out why the natives ate Cook, it is worth talking about his merits. The captain managed to make several geographical discoveries. In addition, about twenty geographical objects were named in his honor, including bays, straits and groups of islands. Also, a number of maps compiled by him served naval commanders until the second half of the nineteenth century.
It is also important that it was Cook who always tried to improve the welfare of the natives. So, the pioneer gave the inhabitants of New Zealand sheep. And he brought pigs and wild boars to New Caledonia. Apparently, in this way he hoped to stop cannibalism among the islanders.
The famous navigator was destined to bring up a galaxy of famous British naval commanders. So, at one time, her team included the future head of the Royal Society D. Banks, the future head of New South Wales W. Bly, the scientist of the Pacific coast of North America D. Vancouver and many others.
In addition, a number of members of his expeditions subsequently distinguished themselves in the Russian service. For example, a sailor from the ship Cook D. Billings led the Russianexpedition to the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Moreover, as a captain. Another - D. Trevenen - was also in the service of the Russian Empire and took part in the war with Sweden. In the Vyborg naval battle he died. It happened in 1790.
Now you know why the natives ate Cook. Finally, I would like to tell you some more interesting facts:
- Pioneer Cook was the first person on the planet who was able to visit all the continents. Only he has never been to Antarctica.
- The captain discovered the Fiji Islands. Although he himself called them "Fisi". But the navigator mistakenly wrote down the name in the ship's log as "Fiji". However, his authority was indisputable. Therefore, they decided to leave the erroneous name.
- The captain had a best friend. It's about Lord Hugh Palliser. At one time he was considered an excellent sailor, then he began to lead the main financial department. Hugh was the first to guess in Cooke a brilliant pioneer. He believed that the captain had an enviable instinct and common sense. However, he never lost his presence of mind. After the death of a friend, the lord created a memorial in his honor. It is located on the Palliser estate in Buckinghamshire.
- Before the last voyage, an artist named Nathaniel Duns managed to paint a portrait of the captain. On the canvas, the largest explorer of Oceania is depicted with a certain map. Almost all of his geographical discoveries are marked on it. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the so-called Rockingham figurine was made from this portrait.
- Early 30s XXcentury philanthropist and bookmaker M. Barnett from Christchurch decided to perpetuate the legendary navigator. He managed to organize a corresponding competitive project. After that, he paid for all the work, including the sculptor's fee, and presented the monument to the city. Since then, the sculpture has been in Victoria Square.
- The Apollo 15B command module was named Endeavor. It was Captain Cook's first ship. By the way, one of the "space shuttles" was once also called by this name.
- In 1935, one of the Moon's craters was named after the famous navigator.