Modern views on management theory, the foundation of which was laid by the scientific schools of management, are very diverse. The article will tell about the leading foreign management schools and the founders of management.
The birth of science
Management has an ancient history, but management theory began to develop only at the beginning of the 20th century. The emergence of management science is credited to Frederick Taylor (1856-1915). The founder of the school of scientific management, Taylor, along with other researchers, initiated the study of the means and methods of leadership.
Revolutionary thoughts about management, motivation arose before, but were not in demand. For example, the project of Robert Owen (beginning of the 19th century) turned out to be very successful. His factory in Scotland was highly profitable by creating working conditions that motivated people to work efficiently. The workers and their families were provided with housing, worked in better conditions, and were encouraged by bonuses. But the businessmen of the time were not ready to follow Owen.
In 1885, in parallel with the schoolTaylor, an empirical school arose, whose representatives (Druker, Ford, Simons) were of the opinion that management is an art. And successful leadership can only be based on practical experience and intuition, but is not science.
It was in the USA at the dawn of the 20th century that favorable conditions developed, in which the evolution of scientific management schools began. A huge labor market has formed in a democratic country. The availability of education has helped many smart people to show their qualities. The development of transport and the economy contributed to the strengthening of monopolies with a multi-level management structure. New ways of leadership were needed. In 1911, Frederick Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management was published, initiating research into the new science of leadership.
Taylor School of Scientific Management (1885-1920)
The father of modern management, Frederick Taylor, proposed and systematized the laws of rational organization of work. With the help of research, he conveyed the idea that labor must be studied by scientific methods.
- Taylor's innovations are methods of motivation, piecework, rest and breaks at work, timing, rationing, professional selection and training of personnel, the introduction of cards with the rules for performing work.
- Together with followers, Taylor proved that the use of observations, measurements and analyzes will help facilitate manual labor, make it more perfect. Introduction of enforceable standards andstandards allowed higher wages for more efficient workers.
- Supporters of the school did not ignore the human factor. The introduction of incentives made it possible to increase the motivation of workers and increase productivity.
- Taylor dismembered labor techniques, separated the management functions (organization and planning) from actual work. Representatives of the school of scientific management believed that people with this speci alty should perform managerial functions. They were of the opinion that focusing different groups of employees on what they are better at makes the organization more successful.
The system created by Taylor is recognized as more applicable to the lower management level when diversifying and expanding production. The Taylor School of Scientific Management has created a scientific foundation to replace obsolete practices. The supporters of the school included such researchers as F. and L. Gilbert, G. Gantt, Weber, G. Emerson, G. Ford, G. Grant, O.A. Germanic.
Development of the school of scientific management
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth studied the factors that affect productivity. To fix movements during operations, they used a movie camera and a device of their own invention (microchronometer). Research has changed the course of work by eliminating unnecessary movements.
The Gilbreths applied standards and equipment in production, which later led to the emergence of work standards that were introduced by scientific management schools. F.Gilbreth studied the factors influencing labor productivity. He divided them into three groups:
- Variable factors related to he alth, lifestyle, physique cultural level, education.
- Variable factors related to working conditions, environment, materials, equipment and tools.
- Variable factors associated with the speed of movements: speed, efficiency, automaticity and others.
As a result of research, Gilbert came to the conclusion that the factors of movement are the most significant.
The main provisions of the school of scientific management were finalized by Max Weber. The scientist formulated six principles for the rational functioning of the enterprise, which consisted in rationality, instruction, regulation, division of labor, specialization of the management team, regulation of functions and subordination to a common goal.
F. Taylor's school of scientific management and his work were continued by the contribution of Henry Ford, who supplemented Taylor's principles by standardizing all processes in production, dividing operations into stages. Ford mechanized and synchronized production, organizing it on the principle of a conveyor, due to which the cost decreased by 9 times.
The first scientific schools of management have become a reliable foundation for the development of management science. The Taylor School has many strengths, but also weaknesses: the study of management from a mechanical point of view, motivation through the satisfaction of the utilitarian needs of workers.
Administrative(classical) school of scientific management (1920-1950)
The administrative school laid the foundation for the development of the principles and functions of management, the search for systematic approaches to improve the efficiency of managing the entire enterprise. A. Fayol, D. Mooney, L. Urvik, A. Ginsburg, A. Sloan, A. Gastev made a significant contribution to its development. The birth of the administrative school is associated with the name of Henri Fayol, who worked for more than 50 years for the benefit of a French company in the field of coal and iron ore processing. Dindall Urwick served as a management consultant in England. James Mooney worked under Alfred Sloan at General Motors.
The scientific and administrative schools of management developed in different directions, but complemented each other. Supporters of the administrative school considered it their main goal to achieve the effectiveness of the entire organization as a whole, using universal principles. The researchers were able to look at the enterprise from the point of view of long-term development and identified characteristics and patterns common to all firms.
In Fayol's book General and Industrial Administration, management was first described as a process that includes several functions (planning, organization, motivation, regulation and control).
Fayol formulated 14 universal principles that allow an enterprise to succeed:
- division of labor;
- combination of authority and responsibility;
- maintain discipline;
- unity of command;
- subordination of own interests to collective interests;
- remuneration of employees;
- interaction chain;
- job stability;
- encourage initiative;
- corporate spirit.
School of Human Relations (1930-1950)
Classical scientific schools of management did not take into account one of the main elements of the organization's success - the human factor. The shortcomings of previous approaches were resolved by the neoclassical school. Her significant contribution to the development of management was the application of knowledge about interpersonal relationships. The human relations and behavioral science movements are the first scientific schools of management to use the achievements of psychology and sociology. The development of the school of human relations began thanks to two scientists: Mary Parker Follett and Elton Mayo.
Miss Follett was the first to think that management is getting work done with the help of other people. She believed that a manager should not only formally treat subordinates, but should become a leader for them.
Mayo proved through experiments that clear standards, instructions and decent pay do not always lead to increased productivity, as the founder of the Taylor school of scientific management believed. Team relationships often trump management efforts. For example, the opinion of colleagues may become a more important incentive for an employee than instructions from a manager or material rewards. Thanks to Mayo was bornsocial management philosophy.
Mayo carried out his experiments for 13 years at the plant in Horton. He proved that it is possible to change the attitude of people to work through group influence. Mayo advised the use of spiritual incentives in management, for example, the connection of an employee with colleagues. He urged leaders to pay attention to team relationships.
The Horton Experiments started:
- study of collective relationships in many enterprises;
- accounting for group psychological phenomena;
- revealing work motivation;
- research on human relationships;
- identifying the role of each employee and a small group in the work team.
School of Behavioral Sciences (1930-1950)
The end of the 50s is the period of the transformation of the school of human relations into the school of behavioral sciences. It was not methods for building interpersonal relationships that came to the fore, but the effectiveness of the employee and the enterprise as a whole. Behavioral scientific approaches and management schools have led to the emergence of a new management function - personnel management.
Significant figures in this direction include: Douglas McGregor, Frederick Herzberg, Chris Argyris, Rensis Likert. The objects of research of scientists were social interactions, motivation, power, leadership and authorities, organizational structures, communications, quality of working life and work. The new approach moved away from the methods of building relationships in teams, and focused on helping the employee to become aware of hisown possibilities. The concepts of the behavioral sciences began to be applied in the creation of organizations and management. Supporters formulated the goal of the school: the high efficiency of the enterprise due to the high efficiency of its human resources.
Douglas McGregor developed a theory about two types of management "X" and "Y" depending on the type of attitude towards subordinates: autocratic and democratic. The result of the study was the conclusion that the democratic style of management is more effective. McGregor believed that managers should create conditions under which the employee will not only expend effort to achieve the goals of the enterprise, but also achieve personal goals.
A major contribution to the development of the school was made by the psychologist Abraham Maslow, who created the pyramid of needs. He believed that the leader should see the needs of the subordinate and choose the appropriate methods of motivation. Maslow identified primary permanent needs (physiological) and secondary (social, prestigious, spiritual), constantly changing. This theory has become the basis for many modern motivational models.
School of Quantitative Approach (since 1950)
A significant contribution of the school was the use of mathematical models in management and a variety of quantitative methods in the development of management decisions. Among the supporters of the school, R. Ackoff, L. Bertalanffy, R. Kalman, S. Forrestra, E. Reif, S. Simon are distinguished. The direction is designed to introduce into management the main scientific schools of management, methods and apparatus of the exact sciences.
The emergence of the school was due to the development of cybernetics and operations research. Within the framework of the school, an independent discipline arose - the theory of managerial decisions. Research in this area is related to the development of:
- methods of mathematical modeling in the development of organizational decisions;
- algorithms for selecting optimal solutions using statistics, game theory and other scientific approaches;
- mathematical models for phenomena in the economy of an applied and abstract nature;
- scale models that simulate society or an individual firm, balance sheet models for inputs or output, models for making forecasts of scientific, technological and economic development.
Modern scientific schools of management cannot be imagined without the achievements of the empirical school. Its representatives believed that the main task of research in the field of management should be the collection of practical materials and the creation of recommendations for managers. Peter Drucker, Ray Davis, Lawrence Newman, Don Miller became prominent representatives of the school.
The school contributed to the separation of management into a separate profession and has two directions. The first is the study of enterprise management problems and the implementation of the development of modern management concepts. The second is the study of job responsibilities and functions of managers. "Empirists" argued that the leader creates something unified from certain resources. When making decisions, he focuses on the future of the enterprise or its prospects.
Anyonethe leader is called upon to perform certain functions:
- setting enterprise goals and choosing development paths;
- classification, distribution of work, creation of an organizational structure, selection and placement of personnel and others;
- stimulation and coordination of personnel, control based on relations between managers and the team;
- rationing, analysis of the work of the enterprise and all those employed on it;
- motivation depending on the results of the work.
Thus, the activity of a modern manager becomes complex. The manager must have knowledge from different areas and apply methods that have been proven in practice. The school has solved a number of significant management problems that arise everywhere in large-scale industrial production.
School of Social Systems
The social school applies the achievements of the “human relations” school and considers the worker as a person with a social orientation and needs reflected in the organizational environment. The environment of the enterprise also affects the education of the needs of the employee.
The prominent representatives of the school include Jane March, Herbert Simon, Amitai Etzioni. This current in the study of the position and place of a person in an organization has gone further than other scientific schools of management. The postulate of "social systems" can be briefly expressed as follows: the needs of the individual and the needs of the collective are usually far from each other.
Through work, a person gets the opportunity to satisfy his needslevel by level, moving higher and higher in the hierarchy of needs. But the essence of the organization is such that it often contradicts the transition to the next level. The obstacles that arise on the way of the employee's movement towards their goals cause conflicts with the enterprise. The task of the school is to reduce their strength through the study of organizations as complex socio-technical systems.
Human Resource Management
The history of the emergence of "human resource management" dates back to the 60s of the XX century. The model of the sociologist R. Milles considered the staff as a source of reserves. According to the theory, good management should not become the main goal, as the scientific schools of management preached. Briefly, the meaning of "human management" can be expressed as follows: the satisfaction of needs should be the result of the personal interest of each employee.
A great company always manages to retain great employees. Therefore, the human factor is an important strategic factor for the organization. This is a vital condition for survival in a difficult market environment. The goals of this type of management include not just hiring, but stimulating, developing and training professional employees who effectively implement organizational goals. The essence of this philosophy is that employees are the assets of the organization, capital that does not require much control, but depends on motivation and stimulation.