Acidic properties are those that are most pronounced in a given environment. There are a number of them. It is necessary to be able to determine the acidic properties of alcohols and other compounds, not only to reveal the content of the corresponding medium in them. It is also important for the recognition of the substance under study.
There are many tests for acid properties. The most elementary - immersion in the indicator substance - litmus paper, which reacts to the content of hydrogen, turning pink or blushing. Moreover, a more saturated color demonstrates a stronger acid. And vice versa.
Acidic properties increase along with the increase in the radii of the negative ions and, consequently, the atom. This provides easier detachment of hydrogen particles. This quality is characteristic of strong acids.
There are the most characteristic acidic properties. These include:
- dissociation (elimination of hydrogen cation);
- decomposition (formation of acid oxide and water under the influence of temperature and oxygen);
- interaction with hydroxides (as a result of which water and s alt are formed);
- interaction with oxides (as a result, alsos alt and water are formed);
- interaction with metals preceding hydrogen in the activity series (s alt and water are formed, sometimes with gas evolution);
- interaction with s alts (only if the acid is stronger than the one that formed the s alt).
Often chemists have to make their own acids. There are two ways to get them out. One of them is mixing acidic oxide with water. This method is used most often. And the second is the interaction of a strong acid with a weaker s alt. It is used somewhat less frequently.
It is known that many organic substances also exhibit acidic properties. They can be expressed stronger or weaker depending on the structure of the nuclei of atoms. For example, the acidic properties of alcohols are manifested in the ability to split off a hydrogen cation when interacting with alkalis and metals.
Alcoholates - s alts of alcohols - are able to hydrolyze under the action of water and release alcohol with metal hydroxide. This proves that the acidic properties of these substances are weaker than those of water. Consequently, the environment is expressed more strongly in them.
The acidic properties of phenol are much stronger due to the increased polarity of the OH compound. Therefore, this substance can also react with alkaline earth and alkali metal hydroxides. As a result, s alts - phenolates are formed. To identify phenol, it is most effective to use a qualitative reaction with iron (III) chloride, in which the substance acquires a blue-violet color.
So, the acidic properties in different compounds manifest themselves in the same way, but with different intensity, which depends on the structure of the nuclei and the polarity of hydrogen bonds. They help determine the environment of a substance and its composition. Along with these properties, there are also basic ones, which increase with the weakening of the first.
All these characteristics appear in most complex substances and form an important part of the world around us. After all, it is at their expense that many processes take place not only in nature, but also in living organisms. Therefore, acidic properties are extremely important, without them life on earth would be impossible.