Many of us remember Archimedes from school. It was the one who said "Eureka!" after entering the tub and noticing that the water level had risen. This led him to realize that the volume of water displaced must be equal to the volume of the object being submerged.
Hieron's Golden Crown
There was once a king named Hieron. The country he ruled was rather small, but it was for this reason that he wanted to wear the largest crown in the world. He entrusted its manufacture to a well-known skilled jeweler, giving him ten pounds of pure gold. The master undertook to complete the work in 90 days. After this time, the jeweler brought the crown. It was a wonderful work, and everyone who saw it said that it had no equal in the whole world.
When King Hieron put the crown on his head, he even felt a little embarrassed, his headdress was so beautiful. Having admired enough, he decided to weigh it on his scales. The crown weighed 10 pounds, as ordered. The king was pleased, but still decided to show it to a very wisea man whose name was Archimedes. He turned the skillfully made headdress in his hands and carefully examined it, after which he suggested that a dishonest jeweler could steal some of the gold, and to save the mass of the product, add copper or silver to it.
Worried Hiero asked Archimedes to provide him with evidence of deceit in case the master was dishonest. The scientist did not know how to do it, but he was not the kind of person who admits something is impossible. He enthusiastically tackled the most difficult problems, and when a question puzzled him, he did not stop until he found the answer to it. So, day after day, he thought about gold and tried to find a way to test the deception without harming the crown.
Great discoveries happen by accident
One morning, Archimedes, thinking about the king's crown, was getting ready for a bath. The large bathtub was full to the brim when he stepped into it, and some water ran out onto the stone floor. Something like this has happened many times, but for the first time a scientist seriously thought about it. "How much water will I displace when I enter the bath?" he asked himself. - “The liquid came out exactly as much as there was me. A man half my size will displace half that. The same thing will happen if you put a crown in the bath.”
Who said "Eureka!"?
Gold is much heavier due to specific gravity than silver. And tenpounds of pure gold cannot displace as much water as seven pounds of gold mixed with three pounds of silver. Silver will have larger sizes, therefore, it will displace more water than pure gold. Hurrah, finally! Found! So that's who said "Eureka!" It was Archimedes. Forgetting everything in the world, he jumped out of the bath and, without stopping to dress himself, he ran through the streets to the royal palace, shouting: “Eureka! Eureka! Eureka!" Translated from ancient Greek, this means “I found! I found! I found it!”
The crown has been tested. As a result, the jeweler's fault was proven beyond any doubt. Whether he was punished or not, history is silent, it basically does not matter. The important thing is that the one who said "Eureka!" made a big discovery in the bath, which is more significant than Hieron's crown.
The concept of "eureka"
The word itself is associated with heuristics, a branch of knowledge that refers to experience and intuition in solving problems, in the process of learning and making discoveries. This exclamation is associated with the scientist Archimedes, who said "eureka" after he came up with a solution to a problem that worried him at that time. This story of the golden crown first appeared in writing in the book of Vitruvius, two centuries after it happened.
Some scientists questioned the accuracy of this story, saying that this method required more accurate measurements that would have been difficult to make at the time. Galileo Galilei de alt with a similar problem when he proposed the designfor hydrostatic balance, which could be used to compare the weight of a dry object with that of the same object submerged in water.
One of the oldest and well-known fairy tales revolves around the legendary Archimedes. Who said "Eureka!"? And why is it, I wonder, many great discoveries are made during everyday and routine activities - in the bathroom, in a dream, under a tree? Archimedes continued to make important contributions to the development of science. The famous Greek mathematician, physicist and astronomer was born in 287 BC in Syracuse, a Greek colony in Sicily, and died in 212 BC. e. during the Roman invasion. His law is passed at school, and he himself is still considered one of the greatest scientists of all time.
This famous principle, accompanied by an interesting story, says that the weight of the same substance must occupy the same volume, regardless of shape. Who said "Eureka"? And what does it mean? It was a joyful exclamation during an important opening. In physics, the principle of Archimedes is described as follows: when a body is immersed in a liquid, a buoyant force equal to the weight of the displaced liquid begins to act on it.
Why do some objects float and others don't? This is due to the phenomenon of buoyancy. For example, a ball of steel will sink, but steel of the same weight but in the shape of a bowl will float because the weight is distributed over a larger area,and the density of steel becomes less than the density of water. An example would be large ships that weigh several thousand tons and float in the ocean.