In our lives we are used to being guided by some fundamental principles built on logical judgments and conclusions. Each of our actions is provoked by accompanying thought processes. We carry out each of our steps thanks to a thought that visited us in advance, which, in turn, served as a signal for us to begin to act. This is the law of nature, the physiological component of the human body, thanks to which we, in fact, exist. It is difficult to imagine a normal society that would act thoughtlessly, being devoid of reason. However, there is still one aspect in the philosophy of human development, which, one way or another, affects the human perception of the world and the relationship of its components not through the system of rational knowledge. The irrational way of thinking is what leads to a dead end for all those whorefutes the significance of the instinctive component and recognizes sanity as the only expedient direction in cognition. That's what is really curious to know interesting facts.
Rationalism and irrationalism
Before considering the essence of the concept of irrationalism, highlighting the forms of irrational knowledge and types that are inherent in this area of studying reality, it is necessary to understand the meaning of the definition, the antagonist of which is irrationalism. This means that it is very important for the full picture to have an idea of \u200b\u200bcontrary to what irrationality exists.
The concept of "rationalism" comes from the Latin ratio, which means "reason" in Russian. Initially, it appeared in philosophy as a doctrine based on a reasonable approach to the perception of everything worldly and everything that human life is associated with. Simply put, the idea of rationalism is aimed at the fact that everything that happens in a person's life is based solely on a reasonable assessment, reasonable analysis and reasonable activity of each individual. Leibniz, Spinoza, Hegel, Descartes became prominent representatives of rational knowledge in philosophy.
Contrary to the beliefs of these and many other adherents of rationalistic views, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Dilthey, Heidegger, Bergson and many others, who were deeply convinced of the opposite, became representatives of the opposition movement, so to speak. They assumed that the role of the mind in cognition is too exaggerated, and that in fact the fundamental aspects are assigned to the irrational, sensualform of knowledge of the world. Rational knowledge, as a process aimed at acquiring knowledge about specific phenomena and objects through reason and reason, is relegated to the background by the philosophy of irrationalism.
Two diametrically different concepts today successfully exist and continue to exist in the system of philosophical knowledge. They, like any other opposing positions, have common aspects, as well as factors that radically distinguish them from each other.
Similarities and differences
So, rational and irrational in scientific knowledge is determined by a number of factors, many of which are different from each other. But there is one thing that unites these opposing positions. This is the object of orientation. Both of these philosophies provide, one way or another, the study of objects, phenomena, actions in the world surrounding a person. In other words, the main similarity between the rational and the irrational in cognition can be briefly characterized by a single goal - the ability to cognize this world with all the relationships and interdependencies that exist in it.
What is the difference between these two positions?
- Rationalists are convinced that human knowledge of surrounding phenomena is based on reason and experience. They turn their attention to facts and logic, and not passion, emotion, instinct, as is characteristic of irrationalists.
- Rationalism is characterized by commitment to scientific knowledge. Its supporters admit the idea that being in all its manifestations will neverwill not receive its rational exhaustive explanation. However, at the same time, they do not cancel the need to study, change it in order to improve the quality of people's lives, naturally, using the methods of science. While irrationalism relegates these scientific methods to the background, putting forward the significance of fate, the influence of predictions, prophecies and karmic prescriptions.
- Rationalists refuse to accept as true information that was obtained in an unknown or inexplicable way. While irrationalists allow the acquisition of knowledge that is based not on facts accessible to a logical explanation, but on an instinctive or intuitive level.
- Rationalism is inherent in the assumption of a critical assessment of those aspects of knowledge that may be subject to doubt. This means that all theories put forward, based on reasonable assumptions, may be subject to refutation. In terms of irrationalism, such questions do not arise at all, since they are not based on scientific justification, which means that it is not possible to refute and argue this refutation.
For a visual understanding of the meaning of this philosophical theory, it is necessary to consider an example of irrational cognition. More precisely, it would be more correct to say here - an example of irrational thinking.
Suppose that there is a belief that there is always the only true solution to any problem, and it must be found, otherwise disaster is inevitable. This belief is believed to beirrational. Why? Because there is no one ideal solution, because then the imaginary outcome of an unsuccessful search for an ideal way out of the situation would be unrealistic and could provoke anxiety or panic, which in itself leads to making the wrong decision.
In such a situation, a rational conclusion would be to search for different possible solutions to such a problem, in which several versions of the possible outcome of events would be found. Of these several variations, one could choose the most suitable one. Here, too, the difference between one concept and another is clearly visible.
If we give a more mundane, non-philosophical example of the method of irrational cognition, then we can explain its meaning in the banal learning to ride a bicycle. For example, when you learn to ride a two-wheeled vehicle, you do not resort to a logical chain and do not build a lot of interconnected and interdependent conclusions. This happens as if on a subconscious level.
In other words, the irrational way of thinking, as well as knowing the world, is associated with intuitive, so to speak, mechanical techniques for mastering the surrounding possibilities. This also includes exaggeration, overgeneralization, mind reading and other similar non-verbal and non-logical ways of knowing.
So what is the essence of irrational knowledge in philosophy and science in general in principle? What is this method of expanding one's horizons and mastering worldly existence?
In the broadest sense of the concept, this is knowledgethe world around without the use of logical conclusions, analytical chains and intellectual intervention. In other words, knowledge at the level of a phenomenon is considered irrational if it is based on intuitive perception, the so-called intuition, on experiences, one's own attitude and signals from the inner center. Such a study of natural relationships and phenomena in every possible way excludes the need for the intervention of rational judgments and logical conclusions. Irrational cognition of the world is beyond human thoughts and is aimed at comprehending phenomena that are in contact with consciousness, but are beyond the mind.
Everything irrational is not subject to comprehension and cannot be rationally comprehended, it is not commensurate with any concepts of the rational. It is identified with intellectual intuition. Rational and irrational in knowledge - both scientific and philosophical - are identified with knowledge and faith, respectively. In a narrower sense, this is science and religion as two institutions for the study of human life in the cycle of phenomena and objects. Their opposition originates from ancient history, when religious beliefs rose above the understanding of everything scientifically based and, on the contrary, scientific research disproved the existence of everything religious. However, the fact that these two philosophies are closely intertwined is undeniable.
Like any aspect of the scientific or philosophical understanding of a particular branch of study, the extralogical study of the worldsubdivided into varieties. Types of irrational cognition are represented by several human abilities that cannot be argued in terms of a scientifically based theory or proven as a certain fact. It is something empirical, something that exists beyond mental understanding - in fact, like everything irrational.
What are these varieties?
This is an active tool of knowledge, which is opposed to rational, conceptual thinking. In science, it is defined as a component of the psychological element of the existing working methods of cognition. From the point of view of psychology, when considering intuition as a phenomenon, a subjective illusion of the concreteness and synthetic nature of this concept arises, which is more, so to speak, material than discursive abstract thinking. But in fact, this is only an appearance, since intuition is psychologically justified by the awareness of unconsciously occurring thought processes: a person thinks a lot about some problem, thereby unconsciously pushing himself to the fact that he knows how it will eventually unfold. And, one can say, having predicted the result, he believes that he felt it at the level of intuition - how can one refute its undeniable significance?
Today, many people consider intuition in terms of some kind of superpower, developed by someone a little more, and someone a little less. You have probably heard more than once about such a concept as “female intuition”. There is a lot of controversy around the female instinct and amazing ability to anticipate any event. Notit is even possible that you often felt the significance of this phenomenon on yourself: when you feel some kind of anxiety for your loved one, you say to yourself: “Intuition tells me that something is wrong with him …” In fact, on a subconscious level, you are just long enough thought about this person for a period of time, and in most cases knew or were notified that he could be in some way, for some reason, really threatened. No one has been able to theoretically substantiate this phenomenon, using logical conclusions, at the moment completely and completely.
Human inspiration is often associated with other elements of irrational cognition. Intuition and creativity are two human abilities that walk hand in hand and have a strong relationship and interdependence. Since creativity is a product of human biosocial evolutionary transformation, it also represents an extraordinary and virtually unanalysable possibility of processing new information. As well as intuition.
It is also surprising that, being a phenomenon that occurs on a subconscious or unconscious level and is not subject to existing rules, at the level of the result, creativity can be combined with rational activity. In other words, creativity is not opposed to rationalism - here one complements the other. Being creative means having the ability to develop specific techniques, gain new knowledge, master skills, learn something new, unknown. Is this not knowledge?
And yet, unlike intuition, nothingthere is no mystery in art. After all, it is subject to scientific research and justification. This kind of activity is projected by the brain, whatever it is. While intuition arises at the level of uncontrolled action, sensation, restless excited feeling. Here you have a choice: to bet on red or on black. After all, you choose one or the other position not because you can justify it logically. It's just your choice. And this choice was made intuitively.
This is another category of the irrational. Irrational cognition - intuition, meditation, instinctive perception, inner sensation - all this includes many different aspects that are logically inexplicable. Being in itself a form of knowledge, along with the sensual and rational, everything irrational is actually known at the level of instincts. And insight is no exception.
The term "insight" in the key of irrational thinking means a certain intellectual outburst, a guess, an idea that visited the brain at a certain period of time and arose quite suddenly. Of course, this phenomenon is considered in the context of the study of any issue, that is, insight comes during the realization of the essence of the problem, but not during analysis. That is, in itself, this category does not justify the process of understanding a particular aspect by a person, but specifically describes it.
To make it more clear what is at stake, you can follow the activation of thisphenomena by example. Surely, each of us often had situations when, due to workload or fatigue, or any other related reasons, during the performance of our usual job duties, we came across some kind of problem and entered into a stupor. It seems that the material is all familiar, everything is simple and clear, but you cannot give an explanation for a specific action and find a solution. Confused thoughts are unleashed in an instant and cleared up at the moment of insight - the truth that suddenly came to you, which completely eliminates the hitch in the work. You cannot control the process, as in the case of intuition. Enlightenment either comes or it doesn't. Here is another hallmark of the irrational - it is far from always amenable to the ability to control these abilities.
This is a form of irrational cognition, which is identical to insight, but is complemented by a strong emotional outburst. That is, this is the moment when a bright thought visits a person’s head, and this action is accompanied by a vivid manifestation of emotion. There is a lot of controversy about this phenomenon: some psychologists argue that the phenomenon is far-fetched and, in fact, does not exist. Others prove the opposite and strongly defend the idea of the real existence of this phenomenon. They argue that insight is the third step in the theory of the inferential resolution of existing problems, while the first is familiarity with a difficult question, and the second is the connection of the thought process to the search for an answer to the question posed.
This form of irrational cognitionis in close contact with intuition, since in its most direct sense its meaning is determined by the intuitive prediction of the occurrence of some event or the origin of some action. It manifests itself differently for everyone, but many do not risk ignoring it. After all, this is a kind of signal from the body, a signal from the inner center of sensations that something is about to happen. And this something can carry both positive and negative messages.
Premonition can also play a decisive role in meeting a new person. It often happens that when meeting with a stranger, we are seized by an inexplicable feeling of unwillingness to continue an introductory conversation. How to explain this phenomenon? After all, a person for us is a completely new face, a potentially unknown and unread book. We don't know anything about him, but the hostility is already there. This happens on a subconscious level, we instinctively anticipate that communication with him may not be successful, we want to push this subject of our fears as far away from ourselves as possible. Can this be explained logically? No. This is an irrational category of human abilities and sensations.
In general, the considered form of mastering the laws of nature and human relationships in the world is one of the frequent topics for term papers and theses in universities, as well as a common idea for writing essays at school or thematic essays. Rational and irrational knowledge in the philosophy of human existence occupies one of the most important stages in the study of psychology and the very process of masteringthe surrounding world. Therefore, the structure and varieties of irrationalism as a form of cognition are no less interesting to study. Particularly many contradictions are caused by such a category of irrational knowledge as clairvoyance. What it is? Where did this definition come from? Why does it take place among the most important axioms and global philosophical questions of our time?
The esoteric dictionary reveals the meaning of clairvoyance in terms of the ability to see those images, objects and phenomena that are beyond the power of a simple person who does not have this ability, and which are inaccessible to perception in the usual perspective of sensitivity. From the point of view of irrationalism as a theory in philosophy, this is a kind of human ability to cognize this world through the prism of intuitive perception of what is happening in the key of increased sensitivity of instinctive instinct. This is an inner vision of a person, information to which comes through symbols, images, signs. Only the clairvoyant himself can decipher what he sees.
Psychologists say that the initial stage of development of clairvoyance is inherent in almost every person. That is, in fact, each of us can develop this feeling stronger and more extensively. However, those images, signals, visions that come to people are often nullified and ignored by them, because this message among thousands of instinctive and intuitive sensations is simply wasted and disappears. The same category of people, who have a much more developed similar instinct, see more.
Until now, the principles of clairvoyance have no scientific justification and argumentative background.Therefore, many people do not believe in mediums and psychics. However, it is impossible to deny the fact that manifestations of clairvoyance are found today all the time. It's just that someone considers them as one of their own "seeming" visions, and someone regards it as a "gift of God".
The category of knowledge, which, due to its groundlessness, is considered almost absurd, nevertheless takes place in the chain of irrational phenomena. Akin to clairvoyance, clairaudience also manifests itself in images and signals, but a person with such amazing abilities does not see them, but hears them. The controversy that unfolded around clairaudience, for the most part, boils down to a mental disorder in which a person begins to hear voices. Often such manifestations are identified with schizophrenia. But the theory of "hearing" the inexplicable people has not been completely refuted by itself.
Another amazing phenomenon in the perception of everything irrational. Sensual and rational knowledge, in contrast to irrationalism, have a specific background. Rationalism tends to be based on inference and reasoning. Sensory cognition relies on sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. And the irrational is a concept driven by instincts and intuition. It is not explained logically. As well as it is difficult to prove the value of psychometrics in human life.
Psychometry as the ability to read information from any object or object in a unique way opens up the possibility of finding out what happened to these objects andobjects some time ago or recently - earlier. It did not do without astral records and features of the information field. In other words, psychometry is, as it were, a subspecies of clairvoyance, since this direction of irrational cognition allows a person, by stroking an object or touching it, to tell about what happened to him a few moments (periods) earlier.
Today, psychometry is applicable in forensics, expert art, reconstruction works of historical and archaeological sites, but this is only at the level of admissibility. Not a single generally recognized state allows the appeal of investigative measures provided for by the criminal code to the abilities of clairvoyants. But at the level of television programs and high-profile crimes, natural disasters, as well as catastrophes and wrecks, the skills of mediums and psychics who apply the basics of psychometry in their work are used quite often.
Multiple studies have helped to establish the fact that sleep - as a brain rest mode - is recognized as such unreasonably. It has been proven that in this state, pressure periodically changes, breathing quickens, the pulse becomes frequent and arrhythmic, and hormonal activity increases significantly. Often, the parameters of a sleeping person reach the level of the same indicators in the waking state, or even exceed it. Such bursts in a dream are called the REM phase - the phase of dreams. It is also noteworthy that it was at this moment, at the moment of increased brain activity, that he practicallycompletely restructured and removed from the outside world, processing information and sorting it exclusively within the limits of internal brain activity. At these moments, a person sees dreams. And these dreams are often prophetic, realistic, predictive.
You can have a lot of discussions on the topic that all this is not applicable in life and it does not carry any meaningful meaning for society due to insufficient scientific justification. But how then to explain the fact that Mendeleev dreamed of his table of chemical elements in a dream? Doesn't it carry great significance for society today in that it explains and describes the interrelationships and interdependence of all existing chemical compounds known to man?
What do you personally think: does irrational cognition carry as much meaning as justified rational and meaningful sensual?