Scientific activity. Development of scientific activity

Science 2023

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Scientific activity. Development of scientific activity
Scientific activity. Development of scientific activity
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Scientific activity is a specific activity of people, the main purpose of which is to obtain new knowledge about reality. Knowledge is its main product. However, he is not the only one. Other products of science include the scientific style of rationality, which extends to various areas of human activity, and various devices, methods, and installations that are used outside of science (mainly in production). In addition, scientific activity is a source of moral values.

scientific activity of galileo galilei

Science and truth

Despite the fact that the orientation of science is to obtain true knowledge about reality, it should not be identified with the truth. The point is that true knowledge is not necessarily scientific. It can be obtained in various fields of activity: in engineering, art, politics, economics, everyday life. However, in these cases, obtaining it is notis the main goal of these areas of activity. For example, in art, the main goal is new artistic values, in the economic sphere - efficiency, in engineering - inventions, technologies.

It should be emphasized that the concept of "unscientific" does not always have a negative assessment. Science has its own specifics, just like other areas - everyday life, politics, economics, art. All of them have their goals, their purpose. The role that scientific activity takes in the life of society is growing. However, scientific justification is appropriate and may not always and everywhere.

History shows that the knowledge obtained with its help is not always true. The very concept of "scientific" is often used in situations that do not guarantee the truth of the acquired knowledge. This is especially true when we are dealing with theories. In science, many of them have been refuted. Some thinkers (notably Karl Popper) argue that in the future this fate may befall any theoretical statement.

Relationship of science with parascientific concepts

Another feature that scientific activity has is that it does not recognize any parascientific concepts - ufology, parapsychology, astrology, etc. They are rejected by it because, as T. Huxley noted, accepting on believing anything, she "commits suicide". In the concepts built using these branches of knowledge, there are no precisely established, reliable facts. Only coincidences are possible.

Science howprofession

Russian science

An important feature of modern science is that it is a profession. Until quite recently, it was the free activity of scientists. Science was not considered a profession; it was not specifically funded in any way. Scholars generally supported their livelihood by teaching at universities. The organization of scientific activity was thus very poor. At present, the situation has changed for the better. Today's scientist is a separate profession. In the 20th century, such a thing as a "scientist" arose. In the world there are now about 5 million people engaged in research professionally. Of course, this entails the rapid development of scientific activity, which leads to new discoveries and achievements.

The struggle of opinions in science

The development of scientific knowledge is characterized by opposition of different directions. In a tense struggle, new theories and ideas are affirmed. On this occasion, M. Planck noted that new scientific truths usually win not because their opponents are convinced that they are wrong, but because opponents gradually die out, and the new generation immediately learns the truth. Research activity is a constant struggle of directions and opinions.

Criteria of scientific knowledge: systematization

It is necessary to highlight the criteria of scientific knowledge, to note its characteristic features. First of all, it is systematization. This is one of the main criteria of scientific character. However, not only in this areathe acquired knowledge can be systematized. There are many examples: a telephone directory, a cookbook, a travel atlas, etc. Nevertheless, scientific systematization has its own specifics. As a system, such knowledge is a certain structure, the components of which are pictures of the world, theories, laws, facts. In science, individual disciplines are interdependent and interconnected.

Evidence

development of scientific activity

Another important criterion that research activity has is the desire for evidence, the validity of knowledge. Bringing it into the system has always been characteristic of science. Its very appearance is sometimes associated with this desire for evidence. Various verification methods are used. To confirm the truth of empirical knowledge, for example, they use multiple checks, resort to statistical data, etc. If it is necessary to substantiate a particular theoretical concept, they pay attention to consistency, the ability to predict and describe phenomena, and correspondence to empirical data.

Original ideas in science

In science, original ideas are of great value. However, it also combines an orientation towards innovations with a tendency to remove from the results obtained everything subjective, which is associated with the specifics of the researcher himself. This is one of its differences from art. In order for an artist's creation to exist, it must be created. However, if some scientist has not created a theory, in the future it willwill be created, as it is a necessary stage in the development of scientific activity, which can be called intersubjective.

Means and methods of scientific knowledge

In scientific activity, reasoning tools are used that people use in various activities, including in everyday life. Reasoning techniques used in science are typical for any other field. These are deduction and induction, synthesis and analysis, generalization and abstraction, idealization, description, analogy, prediction, explanation, confirmation, hypothesis, refutation, etc.

Experiment and observation

research activities

Experiment and observation are the main methods of acquiring empirical knowledge in science. Let's briefly talk about what their specificity is. Observation is a method in which the main thing is not to make changes in the studied reality by the very process of observation. Within the framework of an experiment, the phenomenon to be studied is placed under certain conditions. F. Bacon noted that the nature of things reveals itself best of all, being "artificially constrained" than existing in "natural freedom".

Empirical and theoretical knowledge

It is important to note that without a concrete theoretical setting, empirical research cannot begin. Although it is known that facts are the main thing for a scientist, however, comprehension of reality without theoretical constructions is impossible. On this occasion, I.P. Pavlov noted that a general idea of ​​the subject being studied is necessary in order tofacts could be pinned on him.

Scientific theories are not simple generalizations of empirical data. A. Einstein wrote that it is impossible to come to the basic principles of the theory by logical means. They arise in the interaction of empiricism and theoretical thinking, in the course of solving theoretical problems, in the interaction of science and culture.

Scientists in the course of constructing a particular concept use a variety of methods of theoretical understanding. For example, even the scientific activity of Galileo Galilei was marked by a wide use for constructing the concepts of thought experiments. The theorist who uses them, as it were, plays out various options for the behavior of the idealized objects developed by him. A mathematical experiment is a modern kind of mental experiment. When used on computers, the possible consequences of certain conditions are calculated.

scientific and technical activity

Appeal to Philosophy

Describing scientific activity in general, it is also important to note that scientists in its course often turn to philosophy. Both Russian science and world science often rely on it. Especially for theorists, it is important to comprehend cognitive traditions from the point of view of philosophy, to consider the reality under study in the context of a particular picture of the world. This is very important in the critical stages that science periodically goes through in its development. Great achievements in it have always been associated with philosophical generalizations. Appeal to philosophy contributes to the effective explanation, description andunderstanding of the reality studied by science. The results of scientific activity are thus correlated with its achievements.

Scientific thinking style

There is such a thing as "style of scientific thinking". It reflects important features of the sphere of knowledge that interests us. M. Born noticed that there are certain tendencies of thought that change very slowly and form philosophical periods with ideas inherent in all areas of human activity, including science.

The language of science

Speaking about the means that are used in scientific knowledge, it should be noted that the language of science is the most important of them. Galileo said that the book of nature was written in the language of mathematics. The development of physics confirmed these words of his. The process of mathematization in other sciences is very active. In all of them, mathematics is an integral part of theoretical constructions.

Development of means of knowledge

scientific activity

In science, the course of knowledge largely depends on the development of technical means. The scientific activity of Galileo Galilei, for example, was carried out using a telescope. Then telescopes were created, as well as radio telescopes, which largely determined the development of astronomy. The use of microscopes, especially electronic ones, has significantly influenced the progress in biology. Without such important means of knowledge as synchrophasotrons, it is impossible to imagine the development of elementary particle physics. Modern world and Russian science is currently undergoing a revolution due to the emergence ofcomputer.

Interpenetration of means and methods of sciences

Note that the means and methods used in different sciences are different. This is determined by the specifics of the subject of study, as well as the level of development of science itself. In general, there is a continuous interpenetration of means and methods. The apparatus of mathematics is being used more and more widely. Its incredible effectiveness, as Yu. Wiener noted, makes this science an important means of cognition in all others. However, it is unlikely that the means and methods of various scientific branches will be fully universalized in the future.

Specific Philosophy

Speaking about the specifics of the sciences, one should note the special position of philosophical knowledge. Philosophy as a whole is not a science. In the classical tradition, it was treated as a science of a special kind, but modern thinkers often develop constructions in it that are sharply demarcated from it. For example, this applies to neopositivists, existentialists. Within the framework of philosophy, there have always existed and will continue to exist studies and constructions that can have the status of scientific.

Scientific and methodological activities

organization of scientific activity

This is the main type of educational activity - a set of activities that are carried out in order to master the technologies, techniques and methods of educational work. It is aimed at finding new methods and forms of organization, provision and conduct of the educational process.

Scientific and technical activities

This is a technical activity that is at the junctionengineering and scientific. It belongs to the field of technical scientific disciplines. Her research is applied. This concept in a broader sense covers implementation, engineering and scientific activities.

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