Based on the results of archaeological excavations, it can be concluded that even primitive people had an inherent aesthetic need. The researchers found samples of rock art, which were made about 30 thousand years ago. Even then, a person dreamed of being surrounded by harmonious, beautiful objects.
Approaches to the source of aesthetic need
What is an aesthetic need? There are three main approaches to understanding this term.
The theory of aesthetic pleasure (hedonism) involves the perception of nature as the main source of pleasure. J. Locke said that terms such as "beauty", "beautiful", in the understanding of man denote those objects that "cause feelings of pleasure and joy." It was the hedonistic approach that contributed to the emergence of an artistic and aesthetic need, led to the emergence of experimental aesthetics.
The psychophysicist G. Fechner is considered the founder of this direction. Aesthetic need is considered in the need to createconditions for aesthetic pleasure. Ferchner conducted experiments with a group of volunteers, offering them sounds and colors. He systematized the results obtained, as a result of which he managed to establish the "laws" of aesthetic pleasure:
- no contradictions;
- aesthetic associations.
If the stimulation parameters coincided with natural qualities, a person could experience real pleasure from the natural objects he saw. The theory has found its way into popular culture and industrial design. For example, many people enjoy the look of expensive cars, but not everyone has the aesthetic need to look at the works of the German Expressionists.
This approach consists in the fact that experiences are transferred to certain works of art, as if a person compares himself with them. F. Schiller considers art as an opportunity to "transform other people's feelings into one's own experiences." The process of empathy is intuitive. This theory suggests the satisfaction of aesthetic needs with the help of paintings, "created according to the rules."
In this case, the aesthetic need of the individual is considered as a variant of comprehension of wisdom. This view was held by Aristotle. Proponents of this approach considerart as figurative thinking. They believe that a person's aesthetic needs help him to understand the world around him.
Psychology of Art
L. S. Vygotsky analyzed this problem in his work. He believed that aesthetic needs, human abilities are a special form of socialization of his sensory world. According to the theory set forth in the work "Psychology of Art", the author is convinced that with the help of works of art one can transform passions, emotions, individual feelings, turn ignorance into good breeding. In this case, a person experiences a state of catharsis, characterized by enlightenment, the elimination of contradictions in feelings, and his awareness of a new life situation. Thanks to the discharge of internal tension with the help of works of art, there is a genuine motivation for the subsequent aesthetic activity. In the process of the formation of a certain artistic taste, according to Vygotsky, the need for aesthetic education appears. A person is ready to study theory in order to experience the pleasure of visual study of art objects again.
As the empirical development of the human personality, changes in society, the attitude towards beauty, the desire to create has changed. As a result of progress in different areas of human life, various achievements of world culture arose. As a result of progress, the artistic and aesthetic needs of a person were modernized, the spiritual image of the individual was corrected. They influence creativity, intelligence, creativityactivities and aspirations, attitude towards other people. In the absence of a formed ability for aesthetic perception, humanity will not be able to realize itself in a beautiful and multifaceted world. In this case, it will be impossible to talk about culture. The formation of this quality is possible on the basis of purposeful aesthetic education.
The Importance of Cultural Development
Let's analyze the basic aesthetic needs. Examples of the importance of a full-fledged aesthetic education are confirmed by historical facts. The needs of the aesthetic plan are the source for the development of the world. A person is a social being, therefore, for self-realization, he needs to feel his demand, necessity. Dissatisfaction breeds aggression, negatively affects the mental state of a person.
What is a need
Any living being exists by consuming the goods necessary for life. The basis of this process is the need or needs. Let's try to find a definition for this concept. MP Ershov in his work "Human Need" claims that the need is the root cause of life, and this quality is characteristic of all living beings. He considers need to be some specific property of living matter, which distinguishes it from the inanimate world.
Philosophers of the ancient world
The thinkers of Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece seriously studied the problem of the needs of otherspeople, and even managed to achieve certain positive results. Democritus defined need as the main driving force that changed the mind of a person, helped him master speech, language, acquire the habit of active work. If people did not have such needs, he would remain wild, would not be able to create a developed social society, to exist in it. Heraclitus was convinced that they arise depending on the conditions of life. But the philosopher noted that desires must be reasonable so that a person can improve his intellectual abilities. Plato divided all needs into several groups:
- primary, which form the "lower soul";
- secondary, able to form a reasonable personality.
The French materials of the late 17th century gave importance to these qualities. So, P. Holbach said that with the help of needs a person can control his passions, will, mental abilities, and develop independently. N. G. Chernyshevsky associated needs with the cognitive activity of any person. He was sure that throughout his life a person's interests and needs change, which is the main factor for constant development, creative activity. Despite the serious differences in views, it can be said that there are many similarities in the opinions expressed by scientists. All of them recognized the relationship between needs and human activity. The disadvantage causes a desire to change the situation for the better, to find a way to solve the problem. Needcan be considered a component of the internal state of a person, a structural element of vigorous activity, which is aimed at obtaining the desired result. In his writings, Karl Max paid enough attention to this problem, realizing the importance of explaining the nature of this concept. He noted that it is the needs that are the cause of any activity, allow a particular individual to find his place in society. Such a naturalistic approach is based on the connection between the natural nature of man and a specific historical type of social relations, acting as a link between needs and human nature. Only then can one talk about personality, K. Marx believed, when a person is not limited to his needs, but also interacts with other people.
The opportunity to express yourself
Currently used a variety of options for classifying human needs. Epicurus (the ancient Greek philosopher) divided them into natural and necessary. In case of their dissatisfaction, people suffer. He called communication with other people essential needs. In order for a person to be able to fulfill himself, he needs to make serious efforts. As for brilliance, we alth, luxury, it is very problematic to get them, only a few succeed. Dostoevsky showed particular interest in this topic. He came up with his own classification, we single out material goods, without which a normal human life is impossible. A special place was given to the need for consciousness,bringing people together, social needs. Dostoevsky was convinced that his desires, aspirations, behavior in society directly depend on the level of spiritual development.
Culture of personality
Aesthetic consciousness is a part of social consciousness, its structural element. It, together with morality, forms the basis of modern society, helps humanity develop, and positively affects the spirituality of people. In its activity, it manifests itself in the form of a spiritual need, expressing the attitude towards external factors. It is not opposed to aesthetic development, but stimulates a person to be active, helps him to put into practice theoretical knowledge.
Such a concept as needs, throughout the existence of human society, attracted the attention of many great thinkers and bright personalities. Depending on the level of development, intellectual characteristics, each person forms for himself his own system of needs, without which he considers his existence limited, inferior. Intellectually developed individuals first pay attention to aesthetic needs, and only then do they think about material we alth. There are only a few such people, at all times of the existence of human society they were considered a role model, other people followed their example. It is the need for communication, the desire to do something for other people, developed by political and public figures, that helps them inself-realization and self-development.