What is public transport?

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What is public transport?
What is public transport?
Anonim

Under transport understand the totality of means and means of communication, facilities, passenger service terminals. The system formed by all this infrastructure is called transport. It is a separate branch of the economy and was created to meet the needs of transporting goods with people. As a type of economic activity, public and non-public transport is divided, performing the same function, but with characteristic specifics.

Classification

There is a division into groups according to the type of operation of vehicles and transportation of goods. These are public transport, special, personal and personal automatic (a new group that has appeared relatively recently). Further division into types depends on the environment of movement, type of property, load capacity, engine class and wheels.

Water, air, land and underground transport perform the same function in the country's economy, but are grouped according to the mode of movement, the environment of use and differ in loading characteristics. There are two types of propertytransport - personal and public. Both can be cars or trucks based on the carrying capacity of vehicles.

Types of public transport

General Purpose Categories

Public transport exists to meet the needs of the population in the transportation of goods with people on demand, including the movement of goods between consumers, manufacturers, customers and sales representatives. These are public vehicles that deliver on a commercial basis and act as an independent material industry.

Departmental non-general purpose transport performs the same function, but within the enterprise or organization. In the first case, the owner of technical equipment is obliged to provide services to the public or legal entities under the law "On the organization of regular transportation", and in the second, availability is limited to the production sector.

Rail vehicles

Public means of transportation are divided into categories. Public rail transport is designed to meet the needs of individuals and legal entities in the delivery of goods and passengers to their destination. Transportation is carried out with the help of locomotives and wagons on rail tracks for external and internal purposes. In the transport system of Russia, railways play a major role, providing mass transportation of goods with passengers over medium and long distances. Railway transport, providing services for the movement of bulky goods and people to remote regions of the country,is the main one in Russia.

Railway transport

Urban transport

Cars, trucks and buses provide delivery flexibility and high speed. As one of the modes of public transport, this type of vehicle is characterized by low investment in the equipment of roads and loading and unloading terminals. Its disadvantage is the impossibility of transporting oversized cargo and a large number of passengers per unit of technical equipment, although 90% of passengers within the city use buses and cars.

With the help of trucks, goods are transported over short distances along the roads of settlements and regional routes.

Highways of the city

Water vessels, barges

The advantage of river or sea ships is the movement of bulky cargo on water, and the transportation of passengers is a secondary task. However, in countries where there are many islands, such as Greece, it plays a major role in the transportation of passengers.

Transportation by public transport

Characterized by low tariffs and low speed, public water transport in our country is suitable for enterprises that choose heavy trucks that supervise one way. Compared to other types of communication, it has a lack of speed and limited functionality.

Sometimes river vessels act as mobile warehouses, performing the function of storing goods. All ships in the fleetgeneral purpose need the equipment of special berthing complexes to ensure loading and unloading.

Cargo, passenger aviation

Aircraft is the least demanded type of delivery vehicle due to high freight rates and logistics costs. Aviation requires costs for the maintenance and movement of air cargo, in contrast to rail or road transport. The advantage of aircraft is speed and distance covered. These pluses make aviation a high-speed public transport for international traffic. Helicopters are used to move passengers to hard-to-reach areas of Russia.

Air Transport

Main pipelines

Logistics is impossible without constant deliveries of different types of cargo - bulk, liquid, gaseous. Pipelines ensure the continuous movement of liquids and suspensions over long distances. These are oil and gas pipelines of domestic and international importance, water pipes for supplying drinking or technical water. The disadvantage of this type of transportation is low flexibility, and pipelines are suitable only for the delivery of soluble substances.

Movement of passengers

Movement of passengers over short and long distances is carried out by all types of vehicles. The greatest development was received by means of walking distance of urban significance - buses, trams, trolleybuses, fixed-route and taxi taxis, personal and official cars. Transportation by public transport - part of the infrastructure of the settlement, in which each typetechnical means is in its own niche.

Municipal vehicles are represented by electric trams and trolleybuses. They are characterized by ease of operation, but little flexibility in terms of logistics. Motor transport companies provide a fleet of fixed-route taxis for passenger transportation within the city. Intercity buses are used to move residents between settlements on highways. Motor transport has gained popularity among citizens due to the convenience and flexibility of logistics, low fares.

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