In the modern history of the city, the exact date of its foundation is known. Many commemorate this event with iconic objects. In 1983, a monument was erected in honor of the founding of Sevastopol - a project by architects G. G. Kuzminsky and A. S. Gladkov. But the legendary history of the city makes every building, every stone important.
History of the Crimean Peninsula
The development of the peninsula began long before the founding of Sevastopol. Archaeological excavations of the found sites of Neanderthals, the remains of Paleolithic and Mesolithic cultures indicate that the settlement of these lands began more than 100 thousand years ago.
The nomadic tribes of the Cimmerians in the XII century BC were ousted from the peninsula by the Scythians, who settled in the northwest. The south and the coastal part of the peninsula were inhabited by Tauri, according to some evidence, they came from the Caucasus.
The favorable climate and exceptionally favorable geographical position attracted the Hellenes. The great navigators of their time actively developed colony cities, starting from the end of XIIcentury BC e. Chersonese, Kimmerik, Theodosius and Nymphaeum - these port cities of the Crimean peninsula became the basis of the Bosporan kingdom. Internal strife and raids by nomads forced the Bosporus to come under the rule of the Pontic kingdom and eventually become a protectorate of Rome, and then of Byzantium.
In the tenth century of our era, Prince Vladimir of Kyiv, having stormed the fortress of Chersonesus, was baptized here. In 1397 Taurida was conquered by the Lithuanian prince Vytautas. The steppe regions are controlled by the Golden Horde.
After the collapse of the Golden Horde in 1441, the Crimean Khanate was created, conquered by the Ottomans 36 years later. Over the course of 3 centuries, the Moscow tsars repeatedly sent troops to the outskirts of the Ottoman Empire, since free access to the sea was necessary for the development of the state. The military campaigns of Muscovy ended in defeat.
The strategic goal was achieved in 1771. Under the pressure of the Russian army, the Ottomans left the peninsula, the Crimean Khanate became an independent state. The military strength of the Russian Empire and the diplomatic talent of Catherine II led to the fact that the nobility of the Crimean Khanate in 1783 swore allegiance to the Empress of the Russian state. 1784 - the year of foundation of the city of Sevastopol. This is a very important event. Indeed, in fact, this is the birth of the first Russian city on the Crimean peninsula.
The countdown of Sevastopol as a military fortress can begin a couple of years before the imperial decree establishing the city. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1771,Russian sailors explored the coastline of the peninsula. Navigator Ivan Baturin compiled the first Russian detailed map of bays and nearby areas.
The bay, on the banks of which the Tatar village of Akhtiar was located, turned out to be very convenient for the wintering of the crews of the Russian frigates "Brave" and "Brave" in November 1782. In May 1783, the ships of the Azov and Dnieper flotilla entered the bay, called Akhtiarskaya. Sailors who came ashore began building barracks and fortifications - the first objects of the city of Sevastopol in Crimea.
The first four stone buildings (the chapel of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, the house of the squadron commander, the pier and the forge), the only street - the Balaklava road and the settlements of whitewashed huts on the hills - this is how the City of Glory looked at the beginning of its history.
The layout of the historical part of the city has survived from the time of Ushakov and Lazarev to the present day unchanged, despite the fact that the city was destroyed to the ground twice in its history.
Sevastopol, located on the banks of 33 bays, from the very beginning was divided into three parts. The former Akhtiarskaya and the South, which departs perpendicularly from it, led to such a division. The ship side, North and South retain their territoriality even now thanks to the landscape.
The hill located in the center of the city did not allow Sevastopol to have a central street and square, as was customary in urban development of the 18th century. There are three streets and four squares around the hill - the Central City Ring.
The appearance of the city, in contrast tofrom the layout, changed repeatedly.
At the end of the 18th century, the city's population consisted of 10,000 military and 193 civilians. This determined the initial appearance of the city. Only the construction of military fortifications was planned, everything else was built up spontaneously. Outbuildings of the Admir alty stretched from the Balaklava road to the South Bay. On the other side, on the hill, officers' houses were built. A warehouse, barracks and a dormitory for officers appeared on the Ship Side. The Artillery Bay is being spontaneously built up. The northern side developed more slowly. By the 30s of the 19th century, there were a timber warehouse, barracks, fortifications and an inn.
50 years after the founding of Sevastopol, the city had three tanneries, a brewery, a candle factory, two forges, four churches and more than 200 trading establishments. A library, a city pharmacy and a county school have opened.
The first general building plan was approved in 1840. Three central streets took shape - Bolshaya Morskaya, Ekaterininskaya and Balaklavskaya. At the place of their connection, they designed Theater Square (now Ushakov Square). The first boulevards appear - Small and Large (now Matrossky and Historical). All longitudinal and part of the transverse streets receive names. Particular attention was paid to the appearance of the city from the sea, the sites for building and architectural projects were carefully selected. In 1852, the city was inhabited by 50 thousand people.
Firstthe buildings of the city were not spared by war and time - Sevastopol was completely destroyed during the Crimean War. Only 14 buildings survived, 5 have survived to this day in their original appearance:
- Church of All Saints. Created in 1822 at the personal expense of F. Bychensky, Vice Admiral of the Black Sea Fleet, the temple is located on the territory of the old cemetery, on Pozharova Street. The cross-domed building in the style of classicism was built of Inkerman stone. During the years of Soviet power, it was the only functioning church in the city.
- Lazarevsky barracks. The buildings were designed by an English engineer in the Russian service, Colonel John Upton. The facade of the ensemble of nine buildings is designed in the Empire style. The walls of the barracks, recently plastered, are made of limestone blocks. Part of the barracks still have a military purpose.
- The Tower of the Winds. The ventilation shaft was built simultaneously with the Naval Library by J. Upton and engineer Dikorev. The library building burned down during the shelling of Sevastopol in 1855, the Tower of the Winds survived.
- Savin's house. On Shcherbakov Street you can see the building built in 1848. The shells stuck in the walls, witnesses of the first defense of the city, were preserved at the request of the owner of the mansion, Colonel Savin.
- Volkhov's House. The first owner of the house at 19 Suvorova Street was a retired officer, a we althy contractor, Volokhov. From this house, Admiral Vladimir Kornilov went to Malakhov Kurgan, where he was mortally wounded in October 1857. The building was rebuilt several times, but the facades remained the same, from the time of the admiral's "last apartment".
After the Crimean War, the city of Sevastopol, destroyed to the ground, began to rebuild again.
In the 70s of the 19th century, mansions of the highest command staff, buildings of the maritime department, and municipal institutions were built on the Central City Hill. The first city hospital opens, the water supply system is put into operation. Urban development will become denser, the hillsides will be populated by the families of ship repair and shipbuilding workers. Many residential areas are being built in terraces.
New squares appear: Vladimirskaya, Artilleriyskaya, Naval and Admir alteyskaya. The architecture of the buildings is eclectic - there are Renaissance, neo-Greek, neo-Roman, pseudo-Moorish elements. At the beginning of the 20th century, Sevastopol was surrounded by summer cottages. Train connection with the capital launched.
In the Soviet period, the construction of quarters completely displaces homestead development. The implementation of the master plan of the city, developed in 1936, was interrupted by the war. The second defense of the city cost 99% of the completely destroyed buildings. Of the 110 thousand inhabitants, no more than 10 thousand remained after the liberation of the city.
160 years after its founding, Sevastopol lies in ruins for the second time. Western experts, who saw the city in 1944, determined the recovery time - 50 years. The Soviet state completed the main work after 13 years. The consequences of the war were completely eliminated by the mid-60s.
Listed in 10 citiesThe Soviet Union, subject to priority restoration, Sevastopol received in the post-war years more than 35 thousand workers, engineers and architects. Together with local residents, they worked in two shifts around the clock, dismantled the rubble and ruins, preparing the city for a new life.
The first work was carried out under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel A. S. Kabanov. The number one task was to restore the town planning grid, since many streets could not be determined. It was also necessary to assess the condition of the surviving objects - whether they can be restored.
Modern look of the city
In the Soviet architecture of the post-war period, the classical trend dominated, later called "Stalin's Empire". In Sevastopol, this style determined the entire architectural appearance of the city, giving it a unique originality and charm.
The master recovery plan was developed under the leadership of G. B. Barkhin. The project was brought into reality by architects under the leadership of V. A. Artyukhov. It was decided to use the surviving foundations of pre-war buildings. The height of the buildings of the red line was limited to half the width of the street - a maximum of 4 floors was obtained. This helped the city preserve in its image the picturesqueness of the sea coast, indented with bays.
The central ensemble of the city adorns the building of the Central Design Bureau "Chernomorets". The project of L. A. Pavlov - with a rotunda tower and the correct Ionic order - stands on Admiral Lazarev Square. Beautiful quarter No. 25, designed by V.P. Melik-Parsadanov, is locatedon Bolshaya Morskaya Street. The asymmetric facades of the Sea Club and the City Library have a purely Sevastopol flavor.
Adhering to the same style, all buildings were built of white Inkerman stone using classical order architecture.
By 1957, over 700,000 sq. m. of housing, 350 industrial and commercial enterprises have been put into operation, 8 hospitals and 32 schools are operating.
The history of the creation of Sevastopol and its legendary glory can be traced by getting acquainted with the sights of the city: Grafskaya Pier, Malakhov Kurgan, Primorsky Boulevard, Sapun Gora.
Today the city stretches for almost 25 km. In places where in the days of the wars there were defensive lines, near the bays of Kruglaya, Streletskaya and Kamyshova, today there are quarters of new microdistricts. And the defensive bastions that surrounded Sevastopol in the days of his youth ended up in the central part of the modern city.