Sociology is a science whose object of study is society. Analysis of society is carried out by studying its needs, goals, activities. The tasks of sociology include many concepts, but the main ones involve a global study of all social processes. Thus, science cannot consider only one direction of an individual's activity, it must make an analysis based on the whole set of elements of the life of society.
Object of study
The tasks and the object of sociology are close concepts, since one follows from the other. It is important to understand the meaning of each in order to distinguish between them. The object is the whole human society, all the information about it that is obtained by other sciences. A society that has its separate segments, certain patterns in them, is considered the raison d'etre of sociology, since this is what it studies very carefully.
Several main objects are conditionally distinguished:
The world community with its structure and system.
The society of a certain country with its foundations and traditions.
Microsociety - certain social groups, families, organizations.
- The individual himself, the individual, the unit of society.
The subject of science. How is it different from an object?
The subject and tasks of sociology are interconnected, in some ways they are even identical. The first concept combines all the laws of the development of society and the interaction between different groups, organization.
The subject can be all the characteristic relationships between individuals and the patterns arising from these relationships. It is important that sociology takes into account not some isolated processes, but extensive cases that affect the whole society as a whole.
When it becomes necessary to clarify a specific subject of science, they often cite some social phenomenon and a key event.
- group relationship - the process of internal integration or debate between communities of people;
- the emergence and development of social formations - the institution of the family, religion and other things;
- any social processes - migration, social mobility.
Object, subject and tasks of sociology are concepts that are strongly interconnected. Without them, the existence of science and its development is impossible.
Functions of sociology
Every science has certain functions. Sociology has the following:
- Cognitive - responsible for familiarization, study of society. Here a person is looking for answers to the question of what kind of modern society it is.
- Conceptual-descriptive - describes the life of society.
- Ideological - exists in order to highlight the specific ideals of people. Responsible for the development of ideology, worldview in society.
- Managerial - helps to find more effective ways to solve social problems. Gives important advice, action plans for the ruling power.
- Evaluative - gives an objective assessment of society through the analysis of all institutions and structural units.
- Explanatory - solves issues related to some phenomenon or process in society.
- Prognostic - determines the probable future that awaits this social platform.
- Educational - responsible for knowledge about sociology. Which are given to students in universities, as well as specialists in advanced training courses.
The functions and tasks of sociology coexist together as defined and determinant. That is, the former outline a specific action plan, while the latter help to implement it.
The tasks of sociology
We figured out the functions of the science under study. Now let's explore her tasks:
- The study of all factors in society.
- Selection of the most significant events for science, which are typical for society. It is important that these phenomena recur after a certain period, only then it will be possible to single out thoseroles that a person tries on during problem solving.
- Explanation of the fact that society develops as a certain system with all structural divisions. That is, a certain part will change, and this will necessarily entail changes in other areas of society. As a result, the whole system will become completely different. The consequence of this task should be the understanding that society is a whole framework, which has its own details.
- Fulfillment of a prognostic function, that is, sociologists must anticipate approximate events in the probable future, try to change them or, conversely, contribute to an early onset.
- Compilation of recommendations for management through identified trends in the development of society.
The main tasks of sociology duplicate the functions of science, but give them a deeper meaning. The action indicated in them must be performed throughout the process of studying society.
The goals and objectives of sociology are aimed at all structural parts of society. Science is very extensive, so there are enough approaches to studying its structure. The first suggests that there are two types of sociology - fundamental and applied.
The first implies that science has a certain theoretical basis that will interact with other similar sciences. The second explores specific social events or facts.
Second approach to structuring
Many sociologists present the structure of sociology a little differentlyangle, considering that it is represented by the ratio of the general and sectoral. That is, the concept consists of certain branches of the science under study.
There are 3 levels in this approach:
- General - helps to develop the goals and objectives of sociology. Presented as a theoretical basis.
- Sectoral - sociology of law, economics, youth and others.
- Empirical - specific ways and techniques to collect information.
Sociology of education is the most important part of science. Education is perceived here as a social institution. Its tasks in sociology, relationship with other institutions are considered.
Another branch is the field of science, which examines the relationship of politics with other areas of society, as well as the relationship of a political institution with social ones. This is the sociology of politics.
The sociology of labor is a segment that science is actively studying. It imprints all human activity, which is perceived as a social process inherent in society. Also here are the most effective ways to improve efficiency, change attitudes to work, modernize equipment and technology for work.
Sociology of government - analyzes the entire system of government. Which arises as a result of some social relations.
The tasks of the sociology of the media in this case include the active study of all typical situations in the development of mass communications, the identification of patterns in the actions of social institutions. Which arecause the appearance of the media.
Sociology of public opinion - the subjects here are the specific mechanisms by which public opinion is born and develops. Various relationships between groups of people, between people and events in society are considered.
Modern science of society shows that people are very hard to get used to a new life that changes every day. Despite serious technological progress, in any case, knowledge about a person, about society and relationships in it plays an important role. Thus, the more advanced a civilization becomes, the more it needs sociological knowledge.
Any specialist from various fields should have a basic understanding of society, the tasks and functions of sociology. This is important, since he must be able to foresee, with the help of such knowledge, the likely outcomes when interacting with society.
Science is also of great importance for people who not only want to build a career, but also to form a family, find friends, raise a child properly.
E. Durkheim brought out a wonderful idea about the science of society:
Sociology wouldn't be worth an hour of work if it didn't improve society.
Sociology helps people to see and analyze the problems that arise in society. Science is not able to solve all the difficulties on its own, for this it needs a person who will absorb all the knowledge and information, and then be able to apply them in practice,thus improving the surrounding reality, helping both the people around and oneself.