Sea voyage around the world: the most famous travelers

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Sea voyage around the world: the most famous travelers
Sea voyage around the world: the most famous travelers
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The modern world seems so small. Just think, because today it is possible to get from one corner of the planet to a completely different one even in a day. Every day, millions of passengers travel by plane over distances that even 200 years ago could hardly have been dreamed of. And all this became possible thanks to the brave and purposeful people who once made a sea trip around the world. Who was the first to take such a bold step? How did everything happen? What results did it bring? Read about this and more in our article.

Backstory

Of course, people didn't immediately cross the globe. It all started with small trips on ships that were less reliable and faster than modern ones. In Europe of the 16th century, the production of goods and trade reached such a level that there was an objective need to search for new markets. But first of all - the search for new sources of useful and affordable resources. Apart fromeconomic aspects, there is also a suitable political environment.

In the 15th century, trade in the Mediterranean fell sharply due to the fall of Constantinople (now Istanbul). The ruling dynasties of the most developed countries set their subjects the task of finding the shortest route to Asia, Africa and India. The last country at that time was considered truly a country of treasures. Travelers of those times described India as a country where gold and precious stones were worth nothing, and the number of such expensive spices in Europe was unlimited.

By the 16th century, the technical component was also at the required level. New ships could carry more cargo, and the use of instruments such as the compass and barometer made it possible to move away from the coast for considerable distances. Of course, these were not pleasure yachts, so the military equipment of the ships was important.

Portugal was the leader among the countries of Western Europe by the end of the 15th century. Its scientists have mastered the knowledge of sea tides, currents and the influence of the wind. Cartography developed at a rapid pace.

You can divide the era of great sea voyages around the world into two stages:

Stage 1: Late 15th - mid 16th century - Spanish-Portuguese voyages

It was at this stage that such great events as the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus and the first circumnavigation of Ferdinand Magellan took place.

Stage 2: Mid-16th - mid-17th century - Russian-Dutch period

This includes the development of North Asia by Russians, discoveries in NorthAmerica and the discovery of Australia. Among those who made a trip around the world were scientists, military men, pirates and even representatives of the ruling dynasties. All of them were outstanding and outstanding personalities.

Fernand Magellan and the first trip around the world

If we talk about who made the first trip around the world, then the story should begin with Ferdinand Magellan. This sea voyage initially did not bode well. Indeed, even immediately before the departure, most of the team refused to obey. But still, it happened and played a huge role in history.

navigator travel around the world

The start of the journey

At the end of the summer of 1519, five ships left the port of Seville on a journey without a specific goal, as they then believed. The idea that the earth could be round was, to put it mildly, distrusted by most people. Therefore, Magellan's idea seemed nothing more than an attempt to curry favor with the crown. Accordingly, people filled with fear periodically made attempts to disrupt the trip.

Due to the fact that on board one of the ships there was a person who carefully entered all the events into the diary, the details of this first round-the-world trip reached contemporaries. The first serious skirmish took place near the Canary Islands. Magellan decided to change course, but did not warn or inform the other captains about this. A riot broke out, which was quickly extinguished. The instigator was thrown into the hold in shackles. Discontent grew, and soon another riot was organized to demand a return.Magellan proved to be a very tough captain. The instigator of a new rebellion was immediately executed. On the second day, two other ships attempted to return without permission. The captains of both ships were shot.

sea ​​trip around the world

Achievements

One of Magellan's goals was to prove that there is a strait in South America. In autumn, the ships reached the modern shores of Argentina, Cape Virgines, which opened the way for ships to the strait. The fleet passed through it in 22 days. This time was used by the captain of another ship. He turned his ship back home. Having crossed the strait, Magellan's ships fell into the ocean, which they decided to call the Pacific. Surprisingly, during the four months of the team's journey across the Pacific Ocean, the weather never deteriorated. It was pure luck, because in most cases it can not be called Quiet.

After the discovery of the Strait of Magellan, the team faced a four-month trial. All this time they wandered the ocean, not meeting a single inhabited island or piece of land. Only in the spring of 1521 did the ships finally land on the shores of the Philippine Islands. So Ferdinand Magellan and his team crossed the Pacific Ocean for the first time.

Relations with the local population did not work out right away. Magellan's team received an unexpectedly hospitable welcome on the island of Mactan (Cebu), but was involved in tribal feuds. As a result of clashes on April 27, 1521, Captain Ferdinand Magellan was killed. The Spaniards overestimated their capabilities and opposed an enemy that outnumbered them many times over. Besidesthe crew was severely exhausted from the journey. The body of Ferdinand Magellan was not returned to the team. Now on the island of Cebu there is a monument to the great traveler.

Out of a team of 260 people, only 18 returned to Spain. Five ships left the Philippines, of which only the Victoria ship reached Spain. It was the first ship in history to circumnavigate the world.

Pirate Captain Francis Drake

No matter how strange it may sound, but one of the most prominent roles in the history of navigation was played by a pirate. In addition, this navigator, who made the second trip around the world in history, was also in the official service of the Queen of England. His fleet defeated the Invincible Armada. The man who was the second to circumnavigate the world, navigator Francis Drake, went down in history as a pirate captain and fully confirmed his status.

this navigator who circumnavigated the world

Formation history

In those days when the slave trade was not yet prosecuted by Britain under the law, Captain Francis Drake began his activity. He transported "black gold" from Africa to the countries of the New World. But in 1567, the Spaniards attacked his ships. Drake got out of that story alive, but the thirst for revenge seized him for the rest of his life. A new stage in his life begins when he single-handedly attacks coastal cities and sinks dozens of ships of the Spanish crown.

In 1575, a pirate was introduced to the Queen. Elizabeth the First offered the pirate a service to the crown in exchange for financing his expedition.The only official document stating that Drake represents the interests of the queen was never issued to him. The main reason for this was that, despite the official purpose of the trip, England pursued completely different interests. Initially, losing to Spain in the development of lands across the ocean, the queen made cunning plans. Its goal was to slow down the progress of Spanish expansion as much as possible. Drake went to rob.

round the world trip who is first

The results of the Drake expedition exceeded all expectations. In addition to the fact that the confidence of the Spaniards in their superiority at sea was badly undermined, Drake made a whole series of important discoveries. First, it became clear that Tierra del Fuego (Tierra Del Fuego) is not part of Antarctica. Secondly, he discovered the Drake Passage, which separates Antarctica and the Pacific Ocean. He was the second in history to travel around the world, but was able to return from it alive. And also very we althy.

Upon the return of Captain Francis Drake, a knighthood awaited. So the pirate, the robber became the queen's knight. He became a national hero of England, who was able to put in place the fleet of an arrogant Spain.

Invincible Armada

Whatever it was, but Drake only slightly laid siege to the ardor of the Spaniards. In general, they still dominated the sea. To fight the British, the Spaniards created the so-called Invincible Armada. It was a fleet of 130 ships, the main purpose of which was to invade England and eliminate the pirates. The irony is that the Invincible Armada actually received a resounding defeat. And inthanks in large part to Drake, who at that time had already become an admiral. He always had a flexible mind, used tactics and cunning, more than once putting the enemy in a difficult position with his actions. Then, taking advantage of the confusion, strike with lightning speed.

The defeat of the Invincible Armada was the last glorious fact in the biography of the pirate. After he failed the task of the crown to capture Lisbon, for which he fell out of favor and was sent to the New World at the age of 55. Drake did not survive this trip. Off the coast of Panama, a pirate fell ill with dysentery, where he was buried at the bottom of the sea, dressed in battle armor, in a lead coffin.

James Cook

The man who made himself. He went from cabin boy to captain and made a number of important geographical discoveries, having made three sea voyages around the world.

Born in 1728 in Yorkshire, England. Already at the age of 18 he became a cabin boy. I have always been very passionate about self-education. He was interested in cartography, mathematics and geography. From 1755 he was in the service of the Royal Navy. He took part in the Seven Years' War and, as a reward for years of work, received the rank of captain on the Newfoundland ship. This navigator circumnavigated the world three times. Their results were reflected in the further history of human development.

first trip around the world

Circumnavigation between 1768 and 1771:

  • Proved the assumption that New Zealand (NZ) is not one island, but two separate ones. In 1770 he openedstrait between the North and South Islands. The strait was named after him.
  • He was the first to pay attention to the study of the natural resources of NZ, as a result of which he came to the conclusion about the high potential of using it as a dependent territory of Great Britain.
  • Carefully mapped the eastern coast of mainland Australia. In 1770, his ship circled Cape York. On the eastern side, a bay was discovered, where the largest city of Australia, Sydney, is now located.

Circumnavigation between 1772 and 1775:

  • The first ever crossed the Antarctic Circle in 1773.
  • First observed and mentioned in the reports of such a phenomenon as the aurora.
  • In 1774-1775 he discovered many islands off the coast of Australia.
  • Cook was the first to demonstrate the Southern Ocean.
  • Suggested the existence of Antarctica, as well as the low potential for its use.

Sailing from 1776 to 1779:

  • 1778 rediscovery of the Hawaiian Islands.
  • Cook was the first to explore the Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea.

The journey ended in Hawaii with the death of Captain Cook himself. The attitude of local residents was unfriendly, which, in principle, given the purpose of the visit of the Cook's team, is quite logical. As a result of another conflict in 1779, Captain Cook was killed.

This is interesting! From Cook's on-board notes, the concepts of "kangaroo" and "taboo" first reached the inhabitants of the Old World.

Charles Robert Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin was not so mucha traveler, how much a great scientist who became the founder of the theory of natural selection. For constant research, he traveled around the world, including a sea trip around the world.

who made the first circumnavigation of the world

In 1831 he was invited to take part in a voyage around the world on the Beagle. The team needed naturalists. The circumnavigation lasted five years. This journey in history is on a par with the discoveries of Columbus and Magellan.

South America

The first part of the world on the way of the expedition was South America. In January 1831, the ships reached the coast of Chile, where Darwin conducted a series of studies on the coastal rocks. Based on the results of these studies, it turned out that the hypothesis of changes occurring gradually in the world, distributed over very long time periods (the theory of geological changes), is correct. At the time, this was a completely new theory.

Having been in Brazil, near the city of El Salvador, Darwin spoke of her as "the land of fulfillment of desires." What could not be said about the Argentine Patagonia, where the explorer headed, moving further south. Although the desert landscapes did not fascinate him, it was in Patagonia that the fossilized remains of huge mammals similar to sloths and anteaters were discovered. It was then that Darwin suggested that the change in the size of animals depends on changes in their living conditions.

While exploring Chile, the great scientist Charles Darwin repeatedly crossed the Andes Mountains. After studying them, he was extremelysurprised that they consisted of streams of petrified lava. In addition, the scientist focused on the differences in the composition of flora and fauna in different climatic zones.

Probably the most important event of the entire sea voyage around the world was Darwin's visit to the Galapagos Islands in 1835. Here Darwin first saw many unique species that do not live anywhere else on the planet. Of course, the giant tortoises made the strongest impression on him. The scientist noted such a feature: related, but not identical, species of plants and animals lived on neighboring islands.

Pacific Research

Having explored the fauna of New Zealand, Charles Darwin was left with an indelible impression. The scientist was surprised by such flightless birds as kiwi or an owl parrot. The remains of moa, the largest birds that lived on our planet, were also found right there. Unfortunately, moas completely disappeared from the face of the earth in the 18th century.

In 1836, this navigator, who made a round-the-world trip, landed in Sydney. Apart from the English architecture of the city, nothing attracted the explorer's special attention, as the vegetation was very monotonous. At the same time, Darwin could not fail to note such unique animals as kangaroos and platypus.

In 1836, the voyage around the world was over. The great scientist Charles Darwin began to systematize the collected material, and in 1839 the Naturalist's Diary of Research was published, which was later continued by the famous book on the origin of species.

The first Russian round-the-world trip 1803-1806Ivan Krusenstern

In the 19th century, the Russian Empire also enters the arena of maritime research. The round-the-world voyages of Russian sailors began precisely with the voyage of Ivan Ivanovich Kruzenshtern. He was one of the founders of Russian oceanology, served as an admiral. Largely thanks to him, the formation of the Russian Geographical Society took place.

Russian navigator who circumnavigated the world

How it all began

The first sea voyage around the world took place in 1803-1806. The Russian navigator who circumnavigated the world with him, but did not receive the same fame, was Yuri Lisyansky, who took command of one of the two ships of the circumnavigation. Kruzenshtern repeatedly submitted petitions to finance a trip to the Admir alty, but they never received approval. And most likely, the round-the-world trip of Russian sailors would not have taken place if it were not for the financial benefit of the highest ranks.

At this time, trade relations with Alaska are developing. The business is super profitable. But the problem lies in the road, which takes five years. A private Russian-American company sponsored Krusenstern's expedition. Approval was received from the emperor Alexander the First himself, who was also a shareholder. The emperor approved the request in 1802, adding to the purpose of the trip the assignment of the embassy of the Russian Empire to Japan.

We set sail on two ships. The ships were led by Kruzenshtern and YuriLisyansky, his closest friend.

Travel route and its results

From Kronstadt the ships were heading to Copenhagen. During the trip, the expedition visited England, Tenerife, Brazil, Chile (Easter Island), Hawaii. Further, the ships went to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Japan, Alaska and China. The latest destinations were Portugal, the Azores and the UK.

Exactly three years and twelve days later, the sailors entered the port of Kronstadt.

Results of sea trip:

  • For the first time the Russians crossed the equator.
  • The shores of Sakhalin Island were mapped.
  • Kruzenshtern published the Atlas of the South Sea.
  • Charts of the Pacific Ocean have been updated.
  • In the science of Russia, knowledge of the trade wind countercurrents has been formed.
  • For the first time, water measurements were taken at a depth of up to 400 meters.
  • Atmospheric pressure, tide data released.

The great navigator traveled around the world, and later became director of the Naval Cadet Corps.

Konstantin Konstantinovich Romanov

Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich was born in 1858. His father was Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, who recreated the Russian fleet after the Crimean campaign. Since childhood, his mission was naval service. Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich's round-the-world trip took place in 1874. At that time he was a midshipman.

Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich set himself a goal to travel around the world, since he was oneof the most educated people of that era. He was interested in seeing the whole world. The prince was fond of art in all its manifestations. He wrote poetry, many of which were set to music by the greatest classics of our time. His favorite friend and mentor was the poet A. A. Fat.

grand duke konstantin konstantinovich round the world trip

In total, the Grand Duke devoted fifteen years to service in the Navy, while remaining at the same time a true admirer of art. Even on a trip around the world, Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich took with him the painting “Moonlight Night on the Dnieper”, which magically affects him, despite the threat to its safety.

Grand Duke Konstantin died in 1915, unable to withstand the trials of fate. By that time, one of his sons had been killed in the war, and he never recovered from the blow he received.

Instead of afterword

The era of great voyages and discoveries lasted more than 300 years. During this time, the world has changed rapidly. New knowledge, new skills appeared, which contributed to the rapid development of all branches of science. Thus, more advanced vessels and instruments appeared. At the same time, "white spots" disappeared from the maps. And all this thanks to the exploits of desperate sailors, outstanding people of their time, brave and desperate. It is easy to answer the question of which navigator was the first to circumnavigate the world, but the whole point of the discoveries is that each of the voyages is important in its own way. Each of the travelers has contributed to the world that surrounds us today. Possibilityto travel today, and if desired, repeat the interesting and fascinating path of any of them, but in more comfortable conditions - this is their merit.

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