Parsing a sentence into parts of speech is a very important part of learning the Russian language in general. It will help you understand the essence of the construction of all sentences in your speech, understand what roles the words we use have, how to use them correctly and why everything is built that way in our great and powerful Russian language. So, in this article, we will figure out how to parse a sentence by composition, but first, let's turn to theory.
What is the offer
To make our speech coherent and have an informational message, we divide it into semantic units. If we "dig" deep, then in order to convey information, we make sounds that form letters that form words, which, in turn, are combined with other words into phrases and form sentences.
If the words themselves carry some definite, permanent meaning, then in sentences they begin to play other roles, change the shades of their meanings in order to adapt to the information conveyed by a person. A sentence always contains a completedmeaning, which can be reinforced by intonation if you speak, or punctuation if you write. Complex structures consist of many different parts, this topic is necessarily covered at school, which means that homework often turns out to be an analysis of sentences in the Russian language. Now we will try to learn how to do it quickly, easily and correctly.
Types of offers
Let's start by determining what types of these language units are in Russian, and only then we will move on to the components of the sentence. So, their two main types are simple and complex sentences. Simple ones have at least one grammatical basis and a complete meaning, and the whole feature of complex ones is that they consist of two or more simple ones, which are connected by conjunctions, punctuation marks and, of course, meaning and intonation.
Also, when dealing with a complex one, not only parsing a sentence into parts of speech, but also a graphic representation of its scheme can be carried out. This is possible because complex sentences also have their own types. They can be compound, compound, and non-union. In compound and non-union sentences, simple sentences are equal in meaning, and the difference between these two types is only that the compound ones are connected with the help of a union, and the non-union ones - thanks to punctuation marks. In complex sentences, one part depends on the other in meaning (either two parts are equal, and one depends on them, or several parts depend on each other andAt the same time, they belong to one, the main one), which are also connected with the help of unions.
Let's move on to the parts of both simple and complex sentences. These can be both words and phrases, which are underlined by lines of various types (except for the service parts of speech, since they do not answer any questions). Also, the parts of the sentence play their roles, which determine how they are emphasized, and what the meaning of the information will be.
When talking about how to parse a sentence by composition, the first thing you need to understand is what its grammatical basis is. This is what contains the core and main meaning of what you want to say, and consists of a subject (underlined with one line) and a predicate (underlined with two lines).
The subject answers the question "who?" and what?" and is usually a noun or pronoun (however, in some cases, the subject may also be a verb - here you already need to delve into the meaning and ask the right questions).
The predicate answers the question "what to do?" and less often "what?", is expressed most often by a verb, in some cases by a short adjective and even a noun. Having determined the grammatical basis, you are already halfway to understanding how to parse a sentence by composition, it remains to deal with the rest of the parts.
In addition to the grammatical basis, the sentence has other, secondary parts that are responsible for clarification, distributionand decoration of the main meaning and message. There are three of these other components of the sentence:
- A definition that answers the questions "what?", "which?", "whose?", can be expressed in a variety of parts of speech, but mostly adjectives, pronouns and numerals, underlined with a wavy line when parsing.
- An addition that answers all questions of indirect cases, expressed mainly by nouns and pronouns, is underlined with a dotted line.
- The circumstance, which is expressed by an adverb or a noun with a preposition, answers the questions of the adverb ("how?", "where?", "where?", "when?", "why?") and is underlined by a dotted line with a dot.
A simple sentence parsing
Now you can move from theory to practice. Next, a sample analysis of the proposal by its components and a detailed description of its type will be demonstrated.
Specifically, in this example, it is quite easy to determine the grammatical basis and secondary members: you just need to ask questions. Now let's deal with what is written in brackets:
- The sentence is simple, since there is only one grammatical basis (the girl picked it up).
- Narrative, as it simply describes a non-questioning and non-calling action.
- Non-exclamatory because it ends with a dot.
- Common, as there are minor members of the sentence.
- Two-part, as inthe basis has both a subject and a predicate.
- Not complicated by turns or homogeneous terms.
If you remember such an algorithm, then parsing a simple sentence will not present any difficulties, which means you can move on to the next level.
Analysis of a complex sentence
To parse a complex sentence, you don't need to be afraid that it is long, and just remember - it's just a few simple sentences connected together.
So, as you can see, at first a general description was given to the whole sentence (it is again declarative and non-exclamatory, but now it is complex, since the second part depends in meaning on the first, and you can ask the question "why?"), and then each of the two simple sentences is analyzed separately.
The first hasn't changed since the last example, but notice that it is now the main clause and the second is the subordinate clause, and they are joined by "to" to indicate the reason for the action.
The second sentence is also two-part, common, but now complicated by the adverbial phrase "leaving the room", which answers the question "what are you doing?", separated by commas and fully underlined by a dotted line with a dot.
Explaining how to parse a proposal by composition, one cannot fail to mention the image of the corresponding diagrams. They show the grammatical foundations in complex sentences and how they are related. Mainparts are depicted in square brackets, and dependent ones in round brackets, while the union is indicated for a better understanding of the meaning. Consider the scheme of the previous complex sentence.
The first part about the girl picking up the gum is in square brackets because it is the main sentence (you can see the grammatical basis inside), the second part is in round brackets because it states the reason for what happened in the first part, which means that it is dependent on it. Also in the second simple sentence there is a participle turnover - it is also in brackets and stands between the subject and the predicate.