Modern pedagogy requires new unique and unified approaches. The classical methods proposed by Comenius are no longer effective. This began to be understood by scientists in the early 20th century. And here a new question emerges: where to move on and how to teach children in a new way? This is told by new concepts that are focused on a humane approach to children, that is, now the maximum attention is paid to maximizing the interest of the child, and the focus of the lesson is now not the textbook and not the teacher, but the student himself.
The essence of the pedagogical concept
Pedagogical concept is a special methodical technique of the teacher, where he carries his own ideas, and also forms goals that contribute to the improvement of children's education. Thanks to the correct conclusions of the teacher and the methods of conveying information, physically and morally he althy individuals are formed, which are very important for our country.
A teacher should guide children on the right path and tell them how to become strongpersonalities, citing examples from their lives, or from the lives of other people. He must inspire the younger generation that they should not be afraid of difficulties and always take responsibility on the way to the goal. It is then that each pupil will feel that he is an important member of society.
General provisions play a key role, as important aspects of the pedagogical process are considered here. They help to systematize interdisciplinary knowledge and systematize them together with methodological techniques. By correctly identifying the objects of pedagogical activity, you can understand the specifics of the teacher's work in the classroom, and how successfully he copes with his own developed algorithm.
Key concepts and terms
This section requires you to arrange all the terms that should be related to each other. Thanks to the establishment of links between terms, an unambiguous interpretation appears, and logical harmony strengthens the evidence base. In general, this section aims to connect the terms as clearly as possible.
The structure of the concept in pedagogy
There is still no exact and unambiguous interpretation of the concept. Despite this, some experts managed to develop the most accurate formulation of this term: "The pedagogical concept is a set of scientific knowledge about the object under study, which is designed in a special way." In this case, the information that was obtained during thepedagogical activity.
Also, the concept has other interpretations. For example, a pedagogical concept is a set of key provisions that reveals the features of a student's practical activity.
In order for the results to be objective, for this it is necessary to highlight a number of requirements for the study:
- specific - describes the results that must eventually be implemented;
- measurability - availability of tools to measure performance;
- reality - full provision of all necessary resources;
- controllability - the presence of a powerful information base that will correct the results if necessary.
Functional purpose of the conceptual approach
The structure of modern education is based on the fact that it is important to study the phenomenon of the teacher as an educator and organizer in the structure of the educational institution. Based on this, pedagogical principles should be based on important points that contribute to the transformation of theoretical pedagogical knowledge into practical skills. Therefore, the teacher must be able to:
- group all your knowledge so that they form the only logical system that will not violate the structure of the lesson;
- explain to students how this or that phenomenon or process appeared and developed, with a detailed description of the main characteristics and parameters;
- develop a research methodology.
In the concepts of pedagogical activity, the goal plays a leading role. The goal is formed in order to ensure the effective study of a particular process or phenomenon. In order to successfully realize the goal and successfully bring the goal to life, it is necessary to develop a system of subgoals. The subgoal system looks like this:
- absolutely any goal is divided into separate levels, which should be equivalent in scale and value;
- description of the final result should be formed during the development of the initial goal, which is the main one;
- methods and the possibility of achieving a particular goal are necessarily planned.
To sum up, the overall goal can be represented through provision:
- improving the idea of the pedagogical concept;
- efficiency of a separate component of pedagogical activity, which is currently being investigated;
- quality of the effectiveness of the process itself;
- optimization and implementation of the results of the experiment.
Limits of applicability
These boundaries should include:
- Aspects of the pedagogical process that can be improved using the pedagogical concept.
- The achieved level of knowledge allows you to make a list of effectively solved problems in a particular situation. Without this knowledge, it would be impossible to solve problems effectively.
- Near and long-term goals and objectives in the educational sphere,which substantiate the need to create a pedagogical concept.
Theoretical and methodological approaches
These approaches are the most important pedagogical principles. They help address a number of important issues in education, which include:
- regularization of terminology;
- determination of new features and properties of the object under study;
- identifying patterns and principles of development;
- designation of poorly studied aspects of a particular problem;
- prospects for the development of the studied area for science in general.
Usually, a set of methodological approaches that are designed to study qualitatively different objects acts as a theoretical and methodological justification for research.
Main modern pedagogical concepts
Now all modern teachers are looking for new approaches to teaching. Therefore, each pedagogical theory in different countries has two key functional features. The first is to obtain empirical data and theoretical information that will help improve the level of education in different countries, and the second is aimed at studying the experience in the field of education in different countries, to solve the problems with education in their country. Unfortunately, the application of borrowed experience that helped improve the level of education in one country can worsen the situation in another.
Because experienced domestic teachers doubt that foreign experience will get rid of problems, and are skeptical aboutintroduction of Western technologies.
Konstantin Ushinsky also said that every nation has its own system of education, therefore one nation should not introduce the pedagogical technologies of another nation.
This pedagogical concept originated in the early 20th century. The founders argued that personality determines behavior. In addition, fans of behaviorism replaced the term subject of psychology with the word “reaction” (that is, they believed that human behavior and activity is a simple reaction or reflex).
But later, Skinner began to develop the theory of behaviorism, where he began to correctly assert that the reaction is the consequences of a person's act in certain situations.
Behavioral pedagogy stimulated a technological approach to education. According to it, a set of given personality traits, a student model, is determined, and a system of means and methods of influence is designed. In a civilized society, Skinner's teachings have been widely criticized, because many argued that this gives rise to gross manipulation of the individual.
But Dewey appeared and introduced the theory of pedocentrism into the education system, where adults helped children adapt in difficult situations with the help of simple and developing exercises. Dewey himself criticized the traditional school. He argued that neither the teacher nor the textbook is the center of the educational process, but the child himself. This was a breakthrough in pedagogy.
Also, new technologies in education were introduced by Rogers, who identified important principles,stimulating baby support:
- positive attitude towards the child;
- accepting him the way he is;
- unconditional love for every student (not physical, but spiritual).
Also, based on the teachings of Rogers, we can draw the following conclusions about the rules of pedagogical communication:
- trust children and actively show it;
- help shape individual and group goals;
- motivate to learn;
- be a source of experience for students;
- feel and understand the personal condition of each student;
- own the style of informal warm communication with children;
- have positive self-esteem.
Neopositivism and existentialism
Pedagogy of neopositivism has a negative attitude towards those who, in the basis of education, assign an important role to false ideology, the goals and objectives of which contribute to degradation among the younger generation. Thus, speaking out against manipulating a person and infringing on him as a person, because he does not think like everyone else. Here the task of the school is to direct a person to intellectual development, where he freely chooses the nature of behavior. This new approach solves the problems of labor education.
Existentialism says that the task of the school is to create such conditions for students so that they can find themselves, and also understand how to navigate in the consumer world, where everything is decided by money and connections. Understanding how it worksmodern mercantile system, they will be able to successfully find the properties of their unique personality and become influential people in their field. The task of the teacher is to explain the ethics of man. Scientists say that in this way creative individuals appear, and they learn to take responsibility.