The founder of the national system of physical education: name, basic concepts and methods

Science 2023

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The founder of the national system of physical education: name, basic concepts and methods
The founder of the national system of physical education: name, basic concepts and methods
Anonim

In the modern context, the question: "Who is the founder of the system of physical education (PE) in Russia?", On the one hand, is rhetorical. Indeed, the answer to it is not a secret with seven seals, moreover, it is well known.

On the other hand, only one name of its creator has already become a household name and is perceived as a synonym for the consistent formation of the Russian system of physical education. Thanks to this scientist, today it can be argued that the modern Russian system of physical education has historical and epistemological roots, it took as a basis classical ancient physical education, in other words, ancient European (not Asian, not Hindu).

This teaching today can be understood both in a narrow and in a broad sense. In its narrow sense, this is the PV theory,created by an enlightened, talented, spiritualized personality. In a broader concept, in our XXI century it is already implemented, basic, generally accepted in Russia in all parts of the federal education system.

The founder of the national system of physical education is a brilliant teacher, doctor, anthropologist, Petr Frantsevich Lesgaft. A man who was respected by the Russian intelligentsia. Here is what Academician Pavlov wrote about him:

After graduating from high school, he entered the Medical-Surgical Academy. He was in great need then, often starved, but he graduated brilliantly from the academy, and soon defended two dissertations: first - for the degree of Doctor of Medicine, and three years later - for the degree of Doctor of Surgery.

Lesgaft became the first head of physical education courses, which later evolved into the St. Petersburg State Academy of Physical Culture named after P.F. Lesgaft. Today, 5,000 students, students, graduate students, and doctoral students receive education within the walls of this university. They are taught by 6 academicians, 7 corresponding members of various academies, more than four dozen professors and doctors of science, more than two hundred associate professors and candidates of science, 75 masters of sports.

founder of the scientific system of physical education

On the other hand, in our ordinary life the question asked is "Who is?" evokes an association not with regalia, but with the personality of the person being asked about. In other words, there is a subtext behind this phrase - “is this person a leader, is he able to serve progress and, of course, lead othersof people?". That is, both the intellect and the charisma of a person are evaluated at the same time.

In this case, we are really talking about a person in whom these qualities were manifested in abundance. After all, Peter Frantsevich Lesgaft managed to perform a miracle. Without having power, in the conditions of the empire, he created a system that works for the benefit of the people. In addition, he carried away not only his contemporaries with physical activities, but also set a constructive impetus for development for future generations.

Physical education factor in society

Today, unfortunately, it's not a secret for anyone: the modern PV system is in a deep crisis. To do this, it is enough to familiarize yourself with the statistical information. It confirms the sad reality: 40% of children in the Russian capital have chronic diseases. 70% are in poor he alth. Such disappointing statistics were voiced by the famous pediatrician Leonid Roshal.

The world's most titled representative of figure skating, three-time Olympic champion and ten-time world champion, and now a State Duma deputy, Irina Rodnina has also repeatedly drawn public attention to the fact that the FV program is now being implemented often superficially.

When they say that sports should become a fashion, I strongly disagree with this. This should be a life credo, a recognized necessity. Today it seems that a lot is being done, the Yard Coach and School Sports projects have been created and are being promoted, but, frankly, a lot is being done just for the sake of numbers, for the sake of reports to the authorities.

Personal example of Irina Rodninaconvinces us of the sincerity of her words. As a child, before joining figure skating, she had pneumonia eleven times (!). And it was physical education that helped transform a girl prone to chronic illness into an outstanding athlete of the 20th century.

founder of the system of physical education

It is characteristic that the founder of the national system of physical education even before the works of Pierre Coubertin was the first in modern history to scientifically substantiate the need to introduce the PE system into all spheres of life: from the family level to the state level. The scientist, who was far ahead of his time with his ideas, emphasized the importance of the sequence, cyclicity and continuity of this process:

Everything that exercises develops and improves, everything that does not exercise falls apart.

Of course, that the founder of the scientific system of physical education is not just a scientist - an encyclopedist and researcher who formulated the Olympic principles for athletes of the highest category even before Pierre Coubertin. Lesgaft is also an outstanding teacher, the first in the world to develop the principles of a correct and consistent physical education for children, adolescents, and adolescence in close connection with the mental and general educational aspect.

Crisis level of physical education

Why are we talking about the PV crisis in the country today? Yes, because now at all levels of the system of education and upbringing, starting from the children's level, the principle of harmonious spiritual and physical development of the individual is violated.

It must be admittedthat modern state institutions unsatisfactorily implement the conclusions of the scientist recognized as classics. Officials are often interested in the formal side of physical education, but not its essence, which was surprisingly clearly described by P. F. Lesgaft in his work “Physical Development in Schools”:

In the school question, both mental and physical, development should occupy us equally and should proceed from exactly the same grounds; only in this case can we hope to achieve a more harmonious whole, and at the same time greater stability and consistency in the manifestations of the person being educated … The task of education is to harmoniously develop and teach to control all the organs of movement existing in the human body, replacing the activity of one with the activity of another.

The founder of the scientific system of physical education in Russia argued that the school is the key link in the entire PE system. And his views are really relevant. Leading modern sports educators insist on the same. The actualization of the school as a key link in the PE system is indisputable.

lesgaft founder of the system of physical education

And in this regard, the indifferent role of the state is important, its direct assistance in overcoming poverty, social, family, worldview disorientation of young people. Let's just remember from what a poor, large family, far from physical culture, the most titled (and most talented) defender Alexander M altsev once came to the sport! Alexandra supported and helped children's hobbyto develop exactly the existing PV system.

But he, as Vladimir Tikhonov assured, in his far from revealed talent was similar to Wayne Gretzky, Bobby Hull.

What do we see in children's sports today? Unbridled commercialization? Coaches beating cash from the parents of young athletes? Hundreds of thousands of young people who spend their leisure time not on sports grounds, but over a bottle of beer? Gyms that are paid and therefore inaccessible to most young people?

In this area, it is necessary to solve the difficult problems of targeted funding, teaching interest, accessibility and equipment of sports halls and playgrounds, wide free involvement of children and youth.

Opposition of officials

What hinders the development of PV? High-ranking officials today orient the budget towards the power sector of the economy, distance themselves from the problem under consideration, arguing that the state is not a key element in solving the problems of PV.

Let's object to this demagogy. Who, if not the state, is the main consumer of the human resource? Physical education is closely related to human he alth, which determines successful professional activity and, accordingly, the fulfillment of the individual. After all, at the end of the century before last, Petr Frantsevich Lesgaft (who is the founder of the system of physical education), scientifically proved the social conditioning of PE. It is through individual progress in the physical culture of citizens that the progress of society as a whole is achieved.

Lesgaft has developed not only tasks, goals,methods of such education, but its methodology is also given (definitions and characteristics of the related concepts of physical culture, physical education, upbringing, sports, sports education).

In reproach to the spinelessness of modern figures from the PV, we recall that the founder of the national system of physical education is a man who went against the current all his life and really passionately proved his views.

He began to give his lectures, objectionable to science officials, in 1871 at his apartment. And this selfless feat of service continued until the official recognition. It took 25 years to complete! Who among the leaders of the collapsing Russian PV system today is capable of such a thing?

The scientist was not afraid to go into conflict with the authorities, at one time he was even in disgrace, but as a result he won, was recognized, and managed to practically prove his views. History put everything in its place: despite the fact that the university created by Lesgaft in 1909 was closed by the highest order on a far-fetched reason, Pyotr Frantsevich still managed to build a system of PV, which was revived in 1918.

The Importance of Family Education

Let's move on to the main provisions of the teachings of P. F. Lesgaft. The scientist insisted that the starting point in a well-functioning PV system is the social institution of the family. The founder of the national system of physical education in his work "Family education of the child and its significance" called for the cultivation of young growth, creatively combining two principles: firstly, by providing a certain freedom of action and games,and, secondly, the reasonable guidance of the actions of children by the parents. At the same time, the personality of the child must be spared. With this approach, the best qualities of a person are formed: sincerity, responsiveness, curiosity, sensitivity to the environment.

founder of the scientific system of physical education in Russia

If parents use corporal punishment when raising a child, then, as Lesgaft wrote:

A child who has grown up under the incessant use of them is a sharp and isolated type, his characteristic features are suspicion, sharpness and angularity of actions, isolation, dull and slow reaction to external impressions, manifestations of petty vanity and sharp antics, followed by complete apathy.

According to the scientist, a full-fledged home education lays in the child's personality qualities that further contribute to his proper comprehensive, including physical education. Their list is obvious: concentration, persistent overcoming of difficulties, purposefulness, the desire to bring what has been started to the end.

Scientific foundations of the system of physical education

Today, reading the press, which tells about the problems of educating young people, including physical education, one often simply marvels. Mostly experts write, and often statesmen give interviews. How, after all, they know how to confuse readers, hide from them the very essence of the issue, shift the responsibility! At the same time, against the background of this verbiage, it is admirable how simply and clearly the way to solve thisquestion P.F. Lesgaft.

The key idea of ​​the fundamental work of the scientist "Guide to the physical education of school-age children" in an extremely compressed form is expressed by the following idea:

"Put the child in conditions in which he could freely and harmoniously develop both physically and mentally."

According to the teachings of Lesgaft, physical exercises are a way of multifaceted development of the personality: moral, physical, intellectual, aesthetic. At the same time, physical education is effective if it is practiced in parallel with mental education. The founder of the scientific system of physical education in Russia considered the daily practice of physical exercises an objective necessity in the school curriculum. Moreover, they should be harmoniously combined with mental activities.

According to Lesgaft, physical education is based on the development of both the trainee's body and his personality under the influence of specially selected physical exercises, which gradually become more difficult. The scientist assigns an important role in mastering the exercises to the methods of verbal description and demonstration.

The basics of the system of physical education of the Russian scientist involve four main types of exercises:

  • simple exercises in the movements of the head, torso, limbs and complex exercises with varieties of movements and throwing;

  • exercises with increasing stress during motor actions with sticks and weights, when throwing wooden and iron balls, jumping, wrestling, climbing, maintaining balance;

  • exercises related to the study of spatial and temporal relationships while running at a given pace, jumping a certain distance and throwing at a target;

  • systematic exercises in the process of simple and complex games, swimming, skating and skiing, hiking, excursions and martial arts.

At the same time, Petr Frantsevich Lesgaft cannot be called a pure PE theorist, because he practically created a viable and effective system of physical education, and also prepared teaching staff for it. Lesgaft paid special attention to the training of teachers, personally examining them on human physiology, anatomy, and psychology. The personal qualities of future teachers did not remain without his attention: love for children, tact, neatness, restraint.

Methodology of physical education

Peter Frantsevich can rightfully be called the father of the Russian methodology of physical education. He managed to carry out an impressive work of a physiologist, a scientist-historian, a teacher-methodologist, and, finally, a trainer-practitioner in its creation. P.F. Lesgaft's contribution to the PV methodology is very significant. In particular, a learned educator developed a classic lesson structure.

He proceeded from the fact that the methodological foundations of the system of physical education regulate the structure and sequence of conducting classes in physical education. The latter should consist of an introductory, main and final part. Preparatory contains exercises cyclic, stretching, aerobic. The main one is completed with special exercises that developcertain muscle groups, as well as concentrated dynamic aerobic exercises. The final one practices mainly stretching exercises.

founder of the system of physical education in Russia

The founder of the system of physical education in Russia emphasized the importance of selecting physical activity. It is desirable that during exercise the pulse ranged from 110 to 150 beats per minute. As for strength exercises, he recommended alternating static-dynamic and dynamic subspecies of them.

Lesgaft determined that a set of exercises practiced for more than three months causes the body to adapt to the loads it offers, while the overall effectiveness of such training decreases. As you practice, the exercises themselves should also evolve, increasing the complexity, dynamics and range of motion.

PV as a social institution

Peter Frantsevich Lesgaft, with his characteristic scientific consistency, not only theoretically substantiated and practically laid the foundation for the creation of the state system of PV, but also showed its role and place in society. In particular, he determined the social foundations of this system.

It's no secret that the level of the PV system of a particular country to the greatest extent determines the level of socio-economic development of such a society. Let's take an example from the history of sports. Among the Soviet athletes - sprinters, as a rule, 1-2 people approached the level of the highest achievements. At the same time, American coaches brought 7-8 athletes to the same level. Causesuch a difference is obvious, it lies in the motivation of athletes by society.

The primary link of the economy (enterprises) is at the same time the main source of funding for the PV system Successful large enterprises of the Lesgaft era and modern corporations today fill the revenue side of the budget, from which the PV sphere is financed. In addition, this area is now being developed by self-supporting non-budgetary sports communities - clubs.

The founder of the domestic system of physical education in a separate category singled out the legal framework that regulates the sphere of physical education by law and by-laws. Despite its specificity, the scientist considered the sphere of physical education as a social institution regulated by norms.

In the future development of the PV system, Lesgaft foresaw the creation of a nationwide foundation - the centralized development of a program for the development of PV to maximize its coverage of children and youth and, as a result, improve the he alth of the entire population of Russia.

Thus, the function of PE was studied by the founder of the system of physical education, the basis of which he defined as dialectically interacting factors of different nature,

Main directions of the system of physical education

Speaking about the directions of PV, Lesgaft defined its three categories:

  • general physical education;
  • FV, contributing to the activities in accordance with the chosen profession;
  • FV sports orientation.

General physical education is physical education lessons practiced in schools, secondary and highereducational institutions. The foundations of the system of physical education are, as already mentioned, economic, legal, methodological factors that determine its effectiveness, intensity, mass character.

the founder of the system of physical education, the basis of which

Lesgaft is a pioneer in the introduction of systematic PT classes in domestic educational institutions. The priority goals of the overall PV are:

  • physical he alth promotion;
  • improvement of motor abilities;
  • consistent progressive physical development;
  • learning special skills and abilities.

The PE category, specializing in various professions, develops the potential for physical activity that they demand. The scientist, the hero of our article, formulated and summarized the foundations of the Russian system of physical education and created the prerequisites for their implementation.

Principles of the physical education system

The scientist perceived the PV system as something structured, non-amorphous, built according to certain principles, each of which is implemented in a characteristic way. Let's list them:

  • he alth orientation (implementation requirements: PE methods are substantiated and tested, physical activity is planned individually, teaching and medical supervision is organized);
  • comprehensive development of the trainee (requirements for implementation: a combination of physical and mental development; teaching motor skills and acquiring relevant knowledge);
  • communicationwith the production and military direction (requirements for implementation: secondary in relation to the socio-economic course of the country).

The founder of the national system of physical education emphasized that the above principles are not absolute. They objectively cannot be implemented if the political superstructure and economic basis of the country is antagonistic to the very idea of ​​PV. From this point of view, Petr Frantsevich's personal experience in implementing his ideas is indicative. They, already formed and formalized, could not be implemented in an unfavorable environment for a quarter of a century.

Democratic, club ideas FV generated Lesgaft. In 1896, he founded the courses, which were transformed nine years later into a higher free school. In 1907, this educational institution was declared unreliable, and it was closed. This once again confirmed the truth: the comprehensive development of the individual abhors the imperial ideology.

The aging scientist had a hard time enduring the forced closure of his offspring, his life died out two years after the declaring his life's work disgraced. However, in 1918, his viable ideas were revived with the creation of a university named after him.

Conclusion

Pyotr Frantsevich Lesgaft, the founder of the system of physical education, was a multifaceted person. First, progressive, his ideas were far ahead of their time. The harmonious pedagogical system of the founder of the Russian system of physical education was based on the principle of the unity of physical and mental development that he identified. It was fueled by the creative generalization of deepmedical knowledge, ancient views, permeated with the true spirit of Olympism.

the founder of the scientific system of physical education is

Pyotr Frantsevich Lesgaft became the founder of the scientific system of physical education in Russia, not least thanks to his charisma, the ability to inspire students and like-minded people. He had a talent for bringing together completely different people to solve important problems. His people respected and loved, followed him in all his undertakings.

However, he had both envious people and enemies. Denunciations were written against him, he was persecuted, but he, like a true citizen, continued to manage his life's work - he served the formation of the Russian PV system.

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