The most ancient people: name, history of origin, culture and religion

History 2023

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The most ancient people: name, history of origin, culture and religion
The most ancient people: name, history of origin, culture and religion
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In the process of historical development, whole states and peoples appeared and disappeared. Some of them still exist, others have disappeared from the face of the Earth forever. One of the most controversial issues is which of the peoples is the most ancient in the world. Many nationalities claim this title, but none of the sciences can give an exact answer.

There are a number of assumptions that allow us to consider some peoples of the world as the most ancient people living on our planet. Opinions on this matter vary depending on what sources historians rely on, what territory they explore and what their origins are. This gives rise to many versions. Some of the scientists believe that the Russians are the most ancient people on earth, whose origins go back to the Iron Age.

Khoisan people

The African inhabitants, called the Khoisan people, are considered the most ancient race in the world. They were recognized as such after a genetic study.

Scientists have discoveredthat the DNA of the San people, as they are also called, is the most abundant of any other group.

People who lived as hunter-gatherers for millennia are the direct ancestors of the early modern inhabitants who migrated from the continent. In this way they spread their DNA outside of South Africa, they are believed to be the most ancient people in the world.

A study by the University of Pennsylvania found that all populations are descended from 14 ancient African lineages.

The first humans appeared in southern Africa, probably near the border between South Africa and Namibia, and today there is more genetic change on the continent than anywhere else on Earth.

Khoisan people

Distribution of the Khoisan people

Researchers found that these peoples as independent began to form 100 thousand years before the beginning of a new era, before humanity began its journey from Africa around the world.

If you can believe such information, then about 43,000 years ago there was a division of the Khoisan into the southern and northern groups, some of them retained their national identity, others mixed with neighboring tribes and lost their genetic identity. "Relic" genes have been found in Khoisan DNA that provide increased physical strength and endurance, as well as a high degree of vulnerability to ultraviolet radiation.

Initially, the differences between early pastoralists, farmers, and hunter-gatherers were not staggering, and in many waysareas coexisted with different groups. The first evidence of pastoralism is found in the drier west of the continent. There were found bones of sheep and goats, stone tools and pottery. It is with the origins of these communities, and their evolution into modern societies in South Africa, that the history of the continent is connected.

Khoisan culture

The Khoisan languages ​​originated from one of the hunter-gatherer languages ​​of northern Botswana.

According to archaeological data, pastures and ceramics in this culture appeared at the end of the first millennium BC. Cattle appeared somewhat later. The iron farmers lived in western Zimbabwe or northeastern South Africa. The loosely organized shepherds expanded rapidly, driven by their need for new pastures. Along with pastoralism and pottery, there were other signs of change: domestic dogs, advances in stone-working tools, new settlement patterns, some finds pointing to the development of long-distance trade.

African people

The life of the ancient African people

Most of South Africa's early agricultural communities share a common culture that has spread significantly throughout the region since the 2nd century CE. e. Around the middle of the 1st millennium A.D. e. rural communities lived in relatively large, semi-populated villages. They grew sorghum, millet, and legumes, and raised sheep, goats, and cattle. Made potteryand made iron tools.

Established relationships between hunters, herders and farmers during more than 2,000 years of socio-economic change have varied from general resistance to assimilation. For the indigenous peoples of South Africa, the boundaries between different livelihoods presented new dangers and opportunities. As the new culture spread, larger, more successful farming communities were created. In many areas, the new way of life has been adopted by hunter-gatherers.

Basques

Trying to answer the question of which people are the most ancient, scientists have been studying the Basque people. The origin of the tribes of northern Spain and southwestern France is one of the strangest anthropological mysteries. Their language is unrelated to any other in the world, and their DNA has a unique genetic makeup.

The Basque Country is a territory in northern Spain, bordered by the Bay of Biscay to the north, the French Basque regions to the northeast, and the regions of Navarre, La Rioja, Castile, Leon and Cantabria.

Basque people

Now they are part of Spain, but at one time the inhabitants of the Basque Country (as we know it today) were part of an independent nation known as the Kingdom of Navarre, which existed from the 9th to the 16th century.

Studies have shown that Basque genetics differ from those of their neighbors. For example, Spaniards have been shown to have North African DNA while Basques do not.

FeaturesBasque

Another example is their language, Euskera. Both French and Spanish (and virtually every other European language) are Indo-European, descendants of the same prehistoric dialect once spoken during the Neolithic. However, the Basque language is not one of them. In fact, Euskera is one of the oldest known dialects and is not related to any other language spoken in the world today.

The Basque Country is surrounded by sea and wild rocky coastline on one side and high mountains on the other. Because of this landscape, the Basque territory remained isolated for millennia, it was very difficult to conquer, and therefore it was not affected by migration.

Basques are descended from early hunter-gatherers in the Middle East who lived about 7,000 years ago and mixed with the local population before becoming completely isolated.New research shows the Basques are descended from early Middle Eastern hunter-gatherers.

All this suggests that the Basques are one of the earliest human inhabitants of Europe. They arrived before the Celts and before the spread of Indo-European languages ​​and Iron Age migrations. Some believe they may indeed be related to Paleolithic Europeans during the Early Stone Age.

peplum girls

Chinese

The Han people belong to the largest ethnic group in China, with about 90% of the people in the mainland area being Han people. Today they make up 19% of the world's population. This is the most ancient people of Asia. The emergence of this nationoccurred during the development of Neolithic cultures, the formation of which took place in the V-III millennium BC. e.

The Han people flourished in China for a long time, and more and more people gradually settled around the world. Now they can be found in Macau, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Japan, Laos, India, Cambodia, Malaysia, Russia, USA, Canada, Peru, France and England. Almost one in five people on our planet is ethnically Han Chinese, although most of them live in the People's Republic of China.

Historical role

The Han used to rule and influence China during the Han Dynasty, starting in 206 BC. Art and science flourished during this time, often referred to as the Golden Age of the country. The period in which Buddhism emerged saw the spread of Confucianism and Taoism, and also gave impetus to the development of Chinese characters in writing. In addition, this was the beginning of the creation of the Silk Road, an era in which trade was established between China and many countries far to the west. The first state emperor Huangdi, also called the Yellow Emperor, who unified the country, is considered the ancestor of the Han. Huangdi ruled the Hua Xia tribe that lived on the Yellow River, thus he received the corresponding title. This area and the waters flowing here are considered by the Han Dynasty as the cradle of their civilization, from where the Han culture began and then spread throughout.

ancient chinese

Language, religion and culture

Hanyu was the language of this nation, later itevolved into an early version of Mandarin Chinese. It was also used as a link between many local languages. Folk religion played a significant role in the life of the Han people. The worship of images of Chinese mythology and the ancestors of the clan was closely associated with Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism.

China's golden age during the Han Dynasty brought a revival of national literature, philosophy and art. Fireworks, rockets, gunpowder, crossbows, cannons, and matches are the main inventions of the early Han Chinese, which spread throughout the world. Paper, printing, paper money, porcelain, silk, lacquer, compass and earthquake detectors were also developed by them. The Ming Dynasty, ruled by the Han, contributed to the construction of the Great Wall of China, which was started by the first Emperor Huang Di. The terracotta army of the ruler is one of the most famous masterpieces of the culture of this people.

Terracotta Army

The oldest people in Egypt

Egypt is located in North Africa. One of the most ancient civilizations appeared on this earth. The origin of the name of the state is connected with the word Aegyptos, which was the Greek version of the ancient Egyptian name Hwt-Ka-Ptah ("Mansion of the Spirit of Ptah"), the original name of the city of Memphis, the first capital of Egypt, a major religious and commercial center.

Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians themselves knew their country as Kemet, or the Black Land. This name comes from the fertile, dark soil on the banks of the Nile, where the first settlements were formed.Then the state became known as Misr, which means "country", and the Egyptians still use it today.

Egypt's peak occurred in the middle of the dynastic period (from 3000 to 1000 BC). Its inhabitants have reached great heights in art, science, technology and religion.

Egyptian culture

Egyptian culture, which celebrates the greatness of the human experience, is one of the most popular. Their great tombs, temples and works of art ex alt life and constantly remind of the past.

For the Egyptians, existence on earth was just one aspect of the eternal journey. The soul was immortal and only temporarily occupied the body. After the interruption of life on earth, you can get to the court in the Hall of Truth and, possibly, to paradise, which was considered a mirror image of being on our planet.

The first evidence of mass grazing on the land of Egypt dates back to the III millennium BC. e. This, like the discovered artifacts, points to a civilization flourishing in the region at that time.

culture of ancient egypt

The development of agriculture began in the 5th millennium BC. e. Communities belonging to the Badarian culture arose along the banks of the river. The development of industry took place at about the same time, as evidenced by the faience trade at Abydos. Badarian was followed by the Amratian, Hercerian, and Naqada cultures (also known as Naqada I, Naqada II, and Naqada III), all of which greatly influenced the development of what would become Egyptian civilization. Written history beginsbetween 3400 and 3200 B.C. during the Nakada III culture era. In 3500 B.C. e. mummification of the dead began to be practiced.

Armenians

The territory of the Caucasus includes lands that are part of some modern states: Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Turkey.

Armenians are considered one of the most ancient peoples of the Caucasus. For a long time it was believed that the Armenian people descended from the legendary king Hayk, who came from Mesopotamia in 2492 BC. e. to the territory of Van. It was he who defined the borders of the new state around Mount Ararat, he is considered the founder of the Armenian kingdom. According to scientists, the very name of the Armenians “hai” comes from the name of this ruler. One of the researchers, Movses Khorenatsi, believed that the ruins of the Uratru state were an early Armenian settlement. However, according to the current official version, the Mushki and Urumeans, who appeared in the second quarter of the 12th century BC, are the proto-Armenian tribes. e., before the state of Urartu was formed. Here there was a mixture with the Hurrians, Urartians and Luvians. Most likely, the Armenian statehood was formed during the period of the Hurrian kingdom of Arme-Shubria, which arose in 1200 BC. e.

History holds many secrets and mysteries, and even the most modern research methods cannot find the exact answer to the question - which peoples of the living people are the most ancient?

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