Socialization: concept, types, stages, goals, examples

Science 2023

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Socialization: concept, types, stages, goals, examples
Socialization: concept, types, stages, goals, examples

"To be with everyone" and "to remain oneself" - these are two seemingly mutually exclusive motives that underlie the driving force of the socialization of the individual. What exactly, for what and how a person uses from the inherited and acquired arsenal of his potentials, serves as the basis of his future successes or failures, determines his unique and inimitable life path.

The concept of socialization

The concept of socialization is synonymous with the concept of "personal development" in developmental psychology. However, their key difference is that the first implies a view from the side of society, and the second - from the side of the individual himself.

Also, the concept of socialization is synonymous with the concept of "education" in educational psychology, but not in its narrow sense, but in a broad sense, when it is assumed that the whole life, the whole system educates.

Socialization is a complex multi-level process of mastering social reality by an individual. On the one hand, it is a process that helps a person to learn everythingwhat surrounds him in social reality, including social norms and rules of society, elements of culture, spiritual values ​​developed by mankind, and therefore helps him subsequently to successfully operate in this world.

On the other hand, this is also a process that is connected with how exactly this learned experience is further applied by the personality, that is, how the personality, being an active social subject, implements this experience.

The most important factors in the socialization of an individual are the phenomenon of a person being in a group and self-realization through it, as well as his entry into increasingly complex structures of society.

figure and darts

Goals and objectives

The purpose of socialization is the formation of a responsible and socially active generation, whose actions are regulated by social norms and public interests. It solves three main tasks:

  • integrates the individual into society;
  • promotes interaction between people through their assimilation of social roles;
  • preserves society through the production and transmission of culture from generation to generation.

Socialization is the result of the development and active use of the traditional socio-cultural heritage by the individual while maintaining and developing his individuality.


Mechanisms of socialization function in every society, with the help of which people transmit information about social reality to each other. Sociologically speaking, there are some "translators" of social experience. These are the means thatpass on from generation to generation the accumulated experience, which contributes to the fact that each new generation begins to socialize. Such translators include various sign systems, elements of culture, education systems, and social roles. The mechanisms of socialization are divided into two categories: socio-psychological and socio-pedagogical.

Socio-psychological mechanisms:

  • Imprinting - imprinting information on the receptor and subconscious levels. More typical of infancy.
  • Existential pressure - mastering the language, the norms of behavior at an unconscious level.
  • Imitation - following a pattern, voluntary or involuntary.
  • Reflection is an internal dialogue during which a person critically comprehends, and then accepts or rejects certain social values.

Socio-pedagogical mechanisms:

  • Traditional - the assimilation of dominant stereotypes by a person, which, as a rule, proceeds at an unconscious level.
  • Institutional - is launched when a person interacts with various institutions and organizations.
  • Stylized - functions when included in any subcultures.
  • Interpersonal - turns on every time when in contact with persons subjectively significant for a person.
  • girl at the desk


Socialization is a step-by-step process. At each stage, the aforementioned translators work differently, and special mechanisms are also included,contributing to a better assimilation of social reality.

In domestic literature, in particular, in the textbooks on social psychology Andreeva GM, there are three stages of socialization: pre-labor, labor and post-labor. Emphasis changes at each stage, and above all, the ratio of the two sides of socialization - in the sense of mastering experience and in the sense of transferring experience.

The pre-labor stage of socialization corresponds to the period of a person's life from birth to the beginning of labor activity. It is subdivided into two more independent periods:

  • Early socialization is inherent in the period of time from birth to entering school. In developmental psychology, this is the period of early childhood. This stage is characterized by non-critical assimilation of experience, imitation of adults.
  • Stage of learning - covers the entire period of adolescence in the broadest sense. It definitely includes school time. But the question of which stage to attribute the student years to, became the subject of discussion. Indeed, many students of universities and technical schools are already starting to work.

The labor stage of socialization corresponds to the period of human maturity, although it should be noted that the demographic boundaries of adulthood are very arbitrary. It covers the entire period of active labor activity of a person.

The post-labor stage of socialization implies the period of a person's life after the end of the main labor activity. It corresponds to the retirement age.

relatives in the collection


To understand the types of socialization, it is necessaryto consider the social institutions corresponding to each stage of development. At the pre-labor stage, institutions contribute to the entry of the individual into the social world and the development of this world, its features and laws. In the period of early childhood, the very first institution in which a person begins to master social experience is the family. Various children's institutions follow.

During the period of study, the individual begins to interact with the first more or less official representative of society - the school. It was here that he first got acquainted with the basics of socialization. The institutions corresponding to this period provide the necessary knowledge about the world around. Also during this period, the peer group plays a huge role.

Institutions of the labor stage are enterprises and labor collectives. As for the post-labor stage, the question remains open.

Based on the institutional context, two types of socialization are distinguished: primary, associated with the acquisition of experience from the immediate environment of a person, and secondary, already associated with the formal environment, the impact of institutions and institutions.


The main areas in which an individual masters social ties are activity, communication and self-awareness.

In the process of activity, a person expands his horizons regarding various types of activity. Further, this new information is structured, and then the person is centered on some particular type of activity as the main one, the main one at this stage. That is, a hierarchy is built, comprehension takes place and thecentral activity.

Communication expands and enriches a person's relationship with the public. Firstly, there is a deepening of forms of communication, that is, a transition from monologue to dialogic communication. What does it mean? The fact that a person learns to decenter, to take into account the point of view of another as an equal partner in communication. An example of monologue communication can be a catchy and semi-joking expression: "There are two points of view on this matter - mine and the wrong one." Secondly, the circle of contacts is increasing. For example, with the transition from school to college, the process of mastering a new environment starts.

As a person masters new activities and new forms of communication, a person develops his own self-awareness, which is understood as a person’s ability to generally distinguish himself from others, the ability to recognize himself as “I” and, as this develops some kind of system of ideas about life, about people, about the world around. Self-awareness has three main components:

  • Cognitive Self - knowledge of some of its own characteristics and ideas.
  • Emotional Self - related to overall self-esteem.
  • Behavioral I is an understanding of what style of behavior, what ways of behavior are characteristic of a person and what he chooses.

As socialization grows, self-awareness grows, that is, understanding oneself in this world, one's capabilities, one's preferred behavioral strategies. It is very important to note here that as self-awareness grows, a person learns to make decisions, to make choices.

Making decisions is a very important moment of socialization, because only adequate decisions allow a person to subsequently make sufficiently adequate actions in this world around him.

Together, activity, communication and the development of self-awareness are a process in which a person masters the reality expanding around him. She begins to unfold before him in all her diversity and in all her complexities.

children and rainbow

Features of socialization of children with disabilities

The socialization of children with disabilities - disabilities - provides for their right to diagnostics, special programs for psycho-correctional work, organizational and methodological assistance to families, differentiated and individual training. For children with special educational needs are created:

  • Specialized preschools, schools or remedial classes in mainstream schools.
  • He alth educational institutions of sanatorium type.
  • Special correctional educational institutions.
  • Educational institutions for children in need of psychological, pedagogical and medical and social assistance.
  • Educational institutions of primary vocational education.

For children with disabilities, opportunities are being formed to receive secondary vocational and higher vocational education. For this, special educational institutions are being created, as well as various forms of integration in institutions of generaldestination.

Despite this, the problem of socialization of children and adolescents with disabilities continues to be relevant. A lot of controversy and discussion raises the question of their integration into the society of "he althy" peers.

young people

Features of youth socialization

Youth is the most mobile part of society. This is the group that is most receptive to new trends, phenomena, knowledge and ideas about the world. But it is not sufficiently adapted to new social conditions for itself, and therefore it is easier to influence and manipulate. It has not yet formed stable views and beliefs, and political and social orientation is difficult.

Young people differ from other groups of society in that they are involved in almost all social processes, either directly or indirectly, for example, through their families.

This socio-demographic group includes people aged 16 to 30 years. These years include such important events as getting secondary and higher education, choosing and mastering a profession, creating your own family and having children. During this period, serious difficulties are acutely felt at the stage of life's start. First of all, this concerns employment, housing and material problems.

At the present stage, there is a complication of the problems of psychological adaptation of young people, the mechanisms of their involvement in the system of social relationships are difficult. Therefore, in addition to general educational institutions, special centers for the socialization of youth (CSM) are being created.The main directions of their activity, as a rule, are connected with the organization of social, cultural and leisure activities, the provision of information and consulting services, and the promotion of a he althy lifestyle. Youth is the main resource of society, its future. Her spiritual values ​​and attitudes, moral character and vitality are very important.

grandfather against the sky

Features of the socialization of the elderly

Recently, sociologists have begun to pay closer attention to the study of the socialization of older people. The transition to the post-labor stage, adaptation to a new way of life for oneself does not necessarily imply a process of growth. Personal development can stop or even reverse, for example, due to a decrease in the physical and psychological capabilities of a person. Another difficulty is that social roles are not clearly defined for older people.

The topic of the socialization of older people among researchers of this process is currently causing heated discussions, the main positions of which are completely opposite. According to one of them, the concept of socialization is not applicable to the period of life when all social functions of a person are curtailed. An extreme expression of this view is the idea of ​​"desocialization" following the labor stage.

According to another, a completely new approach to understanding the psychological essence of old age is needed. Quite a lot of experimental studies have already been carried out, confirming the continuing social activity of the elderly.Only its type changes during this period. And their contribution to the reproduction of social experience is recognized as valuable and essential.

grandma dj

Interesting examples of socialization of people over 60

Vladimir Yakovlev, as part of his project "The Age of Happiness", in the book "Wanted and Could" highlights the stories of women who, by their personal example, proved that it is never too late to start making their incredible dreams come true. The motto of the book: "If it's possible at 60, then it's possible at 30." Here are some inspiring examples of socialization in old age.

Ruth Flowers decided to become a club DJ at the age of 68. At 73, under the pseudonym "Mami Rock", she already gave several concerts a month, performed in the best clubs in the world and practically lived on airplanes, flying from one end of the world to another.

Jacqueline Murdoch in her youth dreamed of working as a fashion model. At 82 years old - in the summer of 2012 - she became famous all over the world, becoming the face of the Lanvin brand.

Evgenia Stepanova, upon reaching 60 years old, decided to start a career as a professional athlete. By the age of 74, she had achieved significant success in this field. With so many age-specific competitions around the world, there are plenty of opportunities for her to ride, compete and win.

Successful socialization

A person in the process of socialization goes through three main phases of development:

  1. Adaptation - mastery of sign systems, social roles.
  2. Customization -isolation of the individual, the desire to stand out, to find "one's own way".
  3. Integration - infusion into society, achieving a balance between the individual and society.

A person is considered socialized if he is taught to think and act in accordance with age, gender and social situation. However, this is not enough for successful socialization.

The secret of self-realization and success is a person's active life position. It manifests itself in the courage of initiative, purposefulness, conscious actions, responsibility. The real actions of a person form his active lifestyle and help him to occupy a certain position in society. Such a person, on the one hand, obeys the norms of society, on the other hand, seeks to lead. For successful socialization, for success in life, a person must have the following basic characteristics:

  • the desire for self-development and self-actualization;
  • willingness to make independent decisions in situations of choice;
  • successful presentation of individual abilities;
  • communication culture;
  • maturity and moral stability.

A passive life position reflects a person's tendency to submit to the world around him, to follow circumstances. He tends to find reasons not to make an effort, seeks to avoid responsibility, and blames other people for his failures.

Despite the fact that the formation of a person's life position is rooted in his childhood and depends on the environment in which he is, it can be realized, comprehended and transformed.It's never too late to change yourself, especially for the better. A person is born, and a person becomes.

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